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Year 2 Semester 2 > CNS > Flashcards

Flashcards in CNS Deck (102)
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What is the difference between ionotropic and metabotropic neurotransmitter receptors?

Ionotropic: fast, ligand-gated, receptor is present on ion channel
Metabotropic: slower, G-protein coupled, receptor is separate from ion channel, sends G-protein or second messenger to different receptor on ion channel to make it open

1

What are the 4 parts of the hypothalamus?

Caudal region (mammillary group)
Intermediate region (tuberal group)
Rostral region (chiasmatic group): supraoptic and preoptic regions

2

What is the function of the caudal region of the hypothalamus?

Relay station for reflexes related to sense of smell

3

What is the definition of learning?

The acquisition of abilities or knowledge, a change in behaviour which occurs as a consequence of experience, instruction or both.

4

What is the definition of memory?

The storage of acquired knowledge or abilities for later recall

5

What are the 2 types of memory?

Declarative: specific facts, events and places often resulting from a single experience
Procedural: skilled motor movements gained through repetitive training/ how to do things

6

Where are short-term memories formed?

Hippocampus

7

Where are short-term memories consolidated to long-term memory?

Hippocampus

8

Where are long-term memories stored permanently?

Cerebral cortex

9

Where is accessing and manipulating of long-term memories carried out (through working memory)?

Prefrontal cortex of forebrain

10

Where are 'how to' procedural memories stored?

Cerebellum and relevant cortical regions

11

How long does short-term memory last?

Seconds to hours

12

How long does long-term memory last?

Days to years

13

What is the definition of a synapse?

Junction between neurones and other neurones, or between neurones and their effector cells

14

What is the definition of a neurotransmitter?

A chemical released by a synapse that diffuses from the pre-synaptic membrane to the post-synaptic membrane
Packed in vesicles

15

What are the 3 main types of neurotransmitter?

L-type : slow release, high threshold
T-type : transient (fast) release, low threshold
N-type : neither fast nor slow release

16

What is summation?

Many subthreshold synaptic inputs arriving simultaneously at a synapse to evoke a postsynaptic action potential

17

What are local anaesthetics used for?
Which fibres do they target?
Give some examples

Analgesia
Target pain fibres
Examples: Procaine, Lidocaine, Bupivacaine, Mepivacaine

18

What are opioids used for?
Give some examples

Analgesia and sedation
Morphine, codeine, butorphanol

19

What is a neuroleptanalgesic?
What is it comprised of?
What are its 3 uses?

A drug which causes sedation and profound analgesia
Neuroleptic and opioid
Pre-med, minor surgical procedures, restraint (large animals)

20

Why should you always wear gloves and use a rifle when administering etorphine as restraint?

Absorption through cuts or self-injection is fatal

21

What is the Lewis Triple Response?

A cutaneous response that occurs from firm stroking of the skin which produces an initial red line, followed by a flare around that line, then a wheal.

22

The Lewis Triple Response occurs due to the release of what chemical?

Histamine

23

What are polymodal receptors?

Receptors which pick up different types of pain

24

Where does decussation occur for:
Motor and touch
Pain

Motor and touch: at midbrain
Pain: around the spinal cord segment

25

Nociception only becomes pain when it reaches what?

Thalamus

26

Which are the fastest nerve fibres? What speeds do they operate at?
Which are the slowest (and what are their speeds)?

Fastest: A-alpha (72-120 m/s)
Slowest: C-fibres (0.4-2 m/s)

27

First order neurons synapse in which part of the grey matter of the spinal cord?

Substantia gelatinosa (lamina II)

28

What is meant by an antidromal impulse?

One in which conduction is opposite to that of the normal (orthodromic) direction

29

Where is the chemoreceptor trigger zone located?

4th ventricle of brain