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Year 2 Semester 2 > Skin > Flashcards

Flashcards in Skin Deck (41)
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1

Under what circumstance should you not administer ear drops?

If the tympanic membrane is ruptured

2

Name the 3 main systemic treatments used to treat skin disease

Antibiotics/antifungals
Anti-parasitics
Anti-inflammatories

3

Sulphur is often combined with what when used as an anti-seborrheic agent?

Salicylic acid

4

Why should tar not be used on cats?

Toxic to cats!!!

5

Benzoyl peroxide is metabolised to what?
Where does this take place?

Benzoic acid and oxygen free radicals
Metabolised in epidermis

6

What are the active ingredients in Hibiscrub and Malaseb shampoo?

Hibiscrub: Chlorhexidine
Malaseb: Chlorhexidine and Miconazole

7

What is ethyl lactate metabolised to?
Where does this happen?

Ethanol and lactic acid by bacterial lipases
In hair follicles and sebaceous glands

8

What is the function of emolients?

Act as a vehicle for other agents
Softens/protects the skin
Forms a thin film of oil on stratum corneum
Decreases water loss

9

Give some examples of moisturisers

Urea, essential fatty acids, propylene glycol, glycerin, colloidal oatmeal

10

Give 3 examples of anti-pruritic agents

Hydrocortisone, anti-histamines, aloe vera

11

Give some causes of Otitis externa

Malassezia pachyderma
Dermatophytes
Candida
Mites eg otodectes cynotis

12

What are autocoids?

Chemicals that act like local hormones. They are short-lived and rapidly degraded.

13

What are the 3 classes of autocoids?

Biogenic amines
Lipid-derived
Polypeptides

14

Where is histamine stored?

Mast cells and basophil granules in lungs, skin and mucosal layer of stomach

15

What effect does histamine have on the cardiovascular system?

Dilates arterioles, increases heart contractility and heart rate

16

What is the difference between a 1st and 2nd generation H1 antihistamine antagonist?

1st generation is not ionised at physiological pH and thus can cross the blood brain barrier
2nd generation is ionised at physiological pH so can't cross the blood brain barrier

17

Give some effects of histamine

Vasodilation (H1)
Increased vascular permeability (H1)
Increased gastric secretion (H2)
Contraction of most smooth muscle except blood vessels (H1)
Cardiac stimulation (H2)

18

What are H2 antihistamines used in the treatment of?

Gastritis, reflux, gastric abomasal ulcers

19

Give an example of an inhibitor of histamine release
How does it work?

Sodium chromoglycate
Inhibits the release of histamine from mast cells by opening up chloride channels and hyper-polarising them

20

How many types of serotonin receptor are there?

14

21

Where is serotonin found?

Platelets, enterochromaffin cells, CNS, and myenteric plexus (provide motor innervation to both layers of the muscular layer)

22

What are the functions of serotonin?

Regulate gut motility
Regulate body temperature
Regulate sleep
Enhance mood
Contraction of smooth muscle (GI, uterus, bronchi)

23

What is cisapride used for?

Is a GI prokinetic agent
To treat feline idiopathic megacolon and GI stasis in rabbits and herbivorous rodents

24

In which animals in ketanserin (serotonin agonist) used?

Horses

25

Which 2 hormones cause pyrexia?

IL-1, PGE2

26

Which 3 hormones cause chemotaxis?

PAF(platelet-activating factor), LTB4, (involved in inflammation), 12-HETE (regulates cell behaviour)

27

Prostanoids is a general term for what?

Prostaglandins and thromboxanes

28

What is the function of PGF2a?

Acts on FP receptors in uterine and other smooth muscles, and corpus luteum, producing contraction of uterus and luteolysis

29

What is the function of PGE2?

Acts on EP receptors.
Inflammatory response, fever, pain

30

What is the function of TXA?

Acts on TP to cause vasoconstriction and encourages platelet aggregation to prevent blood loss