Flashcards in Skin Deck (41)
Under what circumstance should you not administer ear drops?
If the tympanic membrane is ruptured
Name the 3 main systemic treatments used to treat skin disease
Sulphur is often combined with what when used as an anti-seborrheic agent?
Why should tar not be used on cats?
Toxic to cats!!!
Benzoyl peroxide is metabolised to what?
Where does this take place?
Benzoic acid and oxygen free radicals
Metabolised in epidermis
What are the active ingredients in Hibiscrub and Malaseb shampoo?
Malaseb: Chlorhexidine and Miconazole
What is ethyl lactate metabolised to?
Where does this happen?
Ethanol and lactic acid by bacterial lipases
In hair follicles and sebaceous glands
What is the function of emolients?
Act as a vehicle for other agents
Softens/protects the skin
Forms a thin film of oil on stratum corneum
Decreases water loss
Give some examples of moisturisers
Urea, essential fatty acids, propylene glycol, glycerin, colloidal oatmeal
Give 3 examples of anti-pruritic agents
Hydrocortisone, anti-histamines, aloe vera
Give some causes of Otitis externa
Mites eg otodectes cynotis
What are autocoids?
Chemicals that act like local hormones. They are short-lived and rapidly degraded.
What are the 3 classes of autocoids?
Where is histamine stored?
Mast cells and basophil granules in lungs, skin and mucosal layer of stomach
What effect does histamine have on the cardiovascular system?
Dilates arterioles, increases heart contractility and heart rate
What is the difference between a 1st and 2nd generation H1 antihistamine antagonist?
1st generation is not ionised at physiological pH and thus can cross the blood brain barrier
2nd generation is ionised at physiological pH so can't cross the blood brain barrier
Give some effects of histamine
Increased vascular permeability (H1)
Increased gastric secretion (H2)
Contraction of most smooth muscle except blood vessels (H1)
Cardiac stimulation (H2)
What are H2 antihistamines used in the treatment of?
Gastritis, reflux, gastric abomasal ulcers
Give an example of an inhibitor of histamine release
How does it work?
Inhibits the release of histamine from mast cells by opening up chloride channels and hyper-polarising them
How many types of serotonin receptor are there?
Where is serotonin found?
Platelets, enterochromaffin cells, CNS, and myenteric plexus (provide motor innervation to both layers of the muscular layer)
What are the functions of serotonin?
Regulate gut motility
Regulate body temperature
Contraction of smooth muscle (GI, uterus, bronchi)
What is cisapride used for?
Is a GI prokinetic agent
To treat feline idiopathic megacolon and GI stasis in rabbits and herbivorous rodents
In which animals in ketanserin (serotonin agonist) used?
Which 2 hormones cause pyrexia?
Which 3 hormones cause chemotaxis?
PAF(platelet-activating factor), LTB4, (involved in inflammation), 12-HETE (regulates cell behaviour)
Prostanoids is a general term for what?
Prostaglandins and thromboxanes
What is the function of PGF2a?
Acts on FP receptors in uterine and other smooth muscles, and corpus luteum, producing contraction of uterus and luteolysis
What is the function of PGE2?
Acts on EP receptors.
Inflammatory response, fever, pain