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Year 2 Semester 2 > Pelvis Dissection > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pelvis Dissection Deck (26)
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What is the best way of achieving a sterile urine sample?

Cystocentesis (small needle inserted directly into bladder through body wall)


Where are the resistance points when inserting a catheter into the penis in the dog?

Just before catheter reaches bulbus glandis (caused by curve of os penis)
Hair-pin loop


What are the methods of obtaining urine in a dog?

Catching free-flowing urine
Manual expression of bladder


Why is it important to insert the catheter the correct length to enter the bladder?

Too short: urine leakage
Too long: kinking, trauma to bladder, can turn on itself and become blocked, or tie itself into a knot


How long should the length of a catheter be in a dog?

Male: 2x length of penile orifice to body wall
Female: 2x length of urethral orifice to body wall (inserted through ventral opening in vagina)


When performing cystocentesis, where would you insert the needle?

1.5" needle, insert it ventral midline just cranial to pubis


When performing a castration, why do we incise through the midline skin as opposed to scrotal skin?

Scrotal skin doesn't heal well (due to presence of glands?)


When performing an open castration, which ligament is manually broken?
What about in a closed castration?

Open= Ligament of tail of epididymis
Closed= Scrotal ligament


Which layers comprise the vaginal sac?

Parietal peritoneum, internal spermatic fascia, cremasteric fascia


What is the vaginal tunic?

Parietal peritoneum


Describe a closed castration

The layers which are incised are skin, tunica dartos and external spermatic fascia. The fascial connections to the scrotal sac are manually broken down, including the scrotal ligament. The vaginal sac is not entered. Testicular vessels are ligated using a circumferential, transfixion ligature through the cremaster muscle.


Describe an open castration

The layers which are incised are skin, tunica dartos, spermatic fascia (external, cremasteric fascia, internal spermatic fascia), vaginal tunic (parietal peritoneum). The ligament of the tail of the epididymis is manually broken. Testicular vessels and ductus deferens are ligated.


Which are the testicular vessels that are ligated during an open castration?

Testicular artery, veins of the pampiniform plexus


Which structures comprise the spermatic cord?

Ductus deferens
Cremaster muscle
Testicular artery and vein


The cremasteric muscle is a sliver of which muscle?

Internal oblique


In which muscle is the superficial inguinal ring situated?
What about the deep inguinal ring?

Superficial: External oblique
Deep: Internal oblique


Why is a closed castration recommended in rabbits?

Superficial inguinal ring is superimposed over deep inguinal ring (so testis can go up into inguinal canal). Closed castrations prevent herniation of abdominal contents.
Same in pigs.


Where are crura derived from?

Ischium of pelvis


Why do dogs possess an os penis?
What is located in the ventral groove of os penis?

Dogs only achieve full erection after penetration of female


Which blood vessels supply the prepuce of the penis?
What do they supply in the female?

Superficial caudal epigastric artery
Supply caudal mammary glands in female (along with cranial epigastric artery)


The bulbus glandis and pars glandis are comprised of which erectile tissue?

Corpus spongiosum


The round ligament of the bladder is a remnant of what?
Where does it attach the bladder?

Attaches bladder to ventral abdominal wall (often broken during surgery as quite delicate)


The left and right lateral ligaments of the bladder are remnants of what?
Where do they attach the bladder?

Umbilical arteries
Attach bladder to lateral pelvic wall


Where are the anal glands located in the rectum?

4 and 8 o clock


Why do we catheterise?

Check for stones
Culture and sensitivity
To get a urine sample


What are the 3 net effects of increased sympathetic nervous activity on the kidneys?

Reduced renal blood flow
Small decrease in excreted waste
Increased conservation of water and sodium