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Year 2 Semester 2 > Repro & Endocrine > Flashcards

Flashcards in Repro & Endocrine Deck (74)
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1

The penile urethra sits within which muscle?

Corpus spongiosum

2

What is the name of the plexus taking away blood from the testes?

Pampiniform plexus

3

Where is each lobe of the pancreas located in the dog?

Right=within meso-duodenum
Left=within deep leaf of greater omentum

4

Which cells exist within islets of Langerhans in the pancreas?

Alpha and beta cells

5

How are exocrine cells arranged in the pancreas?
What about endocrine cells?

Exocrine=clusters called acini
Endocrine=islets of Langerhans

6

In the pancreas, what do acini produce?

Digestive enzymes that flow through ducts into the GI tract

7

Give 3 other catabolic hormones besides glucagon

Cortisol
Growth hormone
Catecholamines

8

What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes?

Type 1=inadequate insulin secretion
Type 2=abnormal target cell responsiveness

9

How does glucose enter cells?
Is this an active or passive process?

Through GLUT transporters
Passive (concentration gradient)

10

How does insulin increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, adipocytes and other cells?

Signals the cell to inset GLUT4 transporters into the membrane, allowing glucose to enter

11

What are the 3 things glucose can be converted to?

Glucose-6-phosphate
Glycogen
Fat

12

How is glucose taken up into hepatocytes?

Glucose enters the cell using GLUT2 transporters.
Insulin stimulates hexokinase to maintain a low intracellular concentration of glucose (converts glucose to glucose 6-phosphate)

13

What is the difference between presence of transporters in the membranes of hepatocytes compared with skeletal muscle, adipocytes and other cells?

Hepatocytes: GLUT2 transporters are ALWAYS present in the cell membrane (not insulin-dependant), transport in both directions.
Skeletal muscle cells: GLUT4 transporters are only present in the cell membrane when insulin signals the cell to insert them there. Only allow glucose to enter, not leave.

14

Are neurones sensitive to insulin?

No

15

How does excess glucose in the CSF affect neurones in the CNS?

Increases osmolarity of CSF, drawing water out of neurones

16

How does insulin decrease blood concentrations of glucose?

Increasing glycogen synthesis
Decreasing hepatic glycogenolysis
Decreasing gluconeogenesis
Increasing glucose transport into skeletal muscle cellls and adipocytes through GLUT4 transporters

17

What effect does insulin have on protein metabolism?

Increases protein synthesis and uptake of amino acids

18

What effect does insulin have on fat metabolism?

Increases fat synthesis and decreases lipolysis

19

What effect does insulin have on K+?

Increases uptake of K+ into skeletal muscle and fat cells by providing ATP to activate the NA+/K+ ATPase pump

20

Describe the structure of insulin and discuss species similarities

Insulin=2 peptides joined by a disulphide bridge.
Porcine and canine insulin molecules are identical, and only differ from human insulin by a single amino acid.
Feline and bovine insulin are similar in structure.
Water-soluble.

21

What kind of receptors does insulin bind to?

Tyrosine kinase membrane receptors

22

What is the plasma half-life of insulin?
What about biological half-life?

Plasma= 5-10 mins
Biological=several hours

23

In which species is the bulbourethral gland absent?

Dog

24

Sexual maturity is signalled by what?

Increased GnRH pulsatility

25

Where is insulin metabolised?

Liver and kidney

26

Which form of lente insulin has the longer duration?

Ultralente

27

What is the average duration of a soluble insulin formulation?
What about non-soluble?

Soluble=3-6 hours
Non-soluble=6-24 hours

28

What is meant by postprandial?
eg postprandial hyperglycaemia

After eating

29

Give 2 adverse effects of using exogenous insulin?

Hypoglycaemia
Insulin resistance (due to stress, insulin antibodies, or insulin receptor desensitisation)

30

How may stress induce exogenous insulin resistance?

By increasing secretion of adrenaline and corticosteroids