Flashcards in Hindlimb Deck (29)
Which muscles originate partly or wholly from the sacrotuberous ligament?
Superficial gluteal, biceps femoris, piriformis and tenuissimus
The acetabular lip continues across the acetabular notch as what?
Transverse acetabular ligament
Where does the ligament of the head of the femur run?
From the fovea of the femur to the acetabular fossa
What is the largest joint capsule in the body?
The patellar ligament is continuous with what?
Tendon of insertion of quadriceps (vastus lateralis head)
Where does the cranial cruciate ligament run?
From medial part of lateral condyle of femur, to intercondylar fossa on cranial tibia
Where does the caudal cruciate ligament run?
From the lateral surface of the medial femoral condyle to the lateral edge of the popliteal notch of the tibia
In which species is the sacrotuberous ligament absent?
Where does the sacrotuberous ligament run?
From the caudal dorsal sacrum and first coccygeal vertebrae to the ischiatic tuberosity
In which animal is the sacrotuberous ligament absent?
What are the 2 ligaments of the hip joint?
Transverse acetabular ligament
Ligament of head of femur
What is the purpose of the acetabular lip?
Further deepens the acetabulum
Stifle joint fabellae are absent in which animals?
Ox and horse
Of the 2 cruciate ligaments, which is more likely to rupture? Why?
Cranial cruciate is more likely to rupture.
The caudal one is thicker and longer, making it less susceptible to damage
What is cranial cruciate rupture usually caused by?
How can you tell it is ruptured?
Hyperflexion of the joint.
Cranial draw of the tibia with respect to the femur
Where does the medial collateral ligament run?
What about the lateral collateral ligament?
Medial: from the medial epicondyle of femur to the medial tibia
Lateral: from the lateral epicondyle of femur to the head of the fibula
Which spinal nerves supply the hindlimb?
L5, L6, L7, S1, S2
What are the 6 major nerves that supply the hindlimb?
Gluteal (extends hip, abducts limb)
Obturator (adducts limb)
Femoral (extends stifle)
Sciatic (flexes and extends stifle, extends hip)
Tibial (flexes digits, extends tarsus, rotates stifle)
Fibular/peroneal (flexes tarsus, extends digits)
Give the path of the blood supply to the hindlimb
External iliac (leaves aorta to become...)
Femoral artery (gives off saphenous artery-superficial supply to paw; becomes...)
Popliteal artery (becomes...)
Cranial tibial artery (provides deep supply to paw)
Which veins provide venous drainage to the hindlimb?
What do these drain into?
Medial and lateral saphenous veins
Drain into the femoral vein
What are the 2 differences in the wings of iliums of dogs and pigs, versus horses and ruminants?
Dogs and pigs: vertical orientation, flat or convex cranial margin
Horses and ruminants: horizontal orientation, concave cranial margin
How many fused sacral vertebrae make up the sacrum in:
Describe the path of the obturator nerve
Passes through obturator foramen of pelvis to medial thigh
Innervates adductor (GAPE) muscles
In the femur of a cow, which trochlear ridge is larger-medial or lateral?
How many patellar ligaments does a cow have?
How many fabellae and popliteal sesamoids does a cow have?
What is the main bio-mechanical function of the menisci of the stifle joint?
What are its other functions?
Split the joint into 2 functional units- the femoromeniscal joint for flexion and extension movements, and the meniscotibial joint for rotation
Stabilise joint, cushioning, proprioception (contain nerve endings)
How is a cow able to kick laterally?
Rotation is possible at the proximal intertarsal joint