Flashcards in SPOT/OSPE Revision Deck (225)
The left and right recurrent laryngeal nerves loop under what when running up towards the neck?
Right=right subclavian artery
Describe the path of the vagus nerve
Cranial nerve 10. Arises from brain, then goes to nodose ganglion. Joins with sympathetic trunk (but nothing to do with it) at the cranial cervical ganglion. These split at the middle cervical ganglion. Vagus supplies branches to the heart and lungs before dividing into a dorsal and ventral branch. At around the level of the diaphragm, the left and right dorsal and ventral branches join to give a single dorsal branch (supplies visceral surface of stomach/pylorus) and a single ventral vagal trunk (supplies parietal surface of pylorus and liver) within the abdomen
The recurrent laryngeal nerve is a branch of which nerve?
Where does the thoracic duct lie?
What does it do?
Drains lymph from the gut into the cranial vena cava
Lies on the left in the thorax
Is found on the oesophagus cranial to the aorta
What passes through the foramen magnum in the skull?
In the cow, the horns are continuous with which sinus?
Where are the trephine points in a horse?
2 over the frontal sinus
1 over the rostral maxillary sinus
1 at the junction between the rostral and caudal maxillary sinus
Which muscles form the pelvic diaphragm?
Internal and external anal sphincters
How are muscles moved around/sutured during a herniorrhaphy?
The coccygeus is sutured to the external anal sphincter. Next the internal obturator muscle is elevated off the floor of the pelvis, its tendon is incised, and it is reflected dorsomedially and sutured to the external anal sphincter
Which species posses a tracheal bronchus? Which lung lobe does it supply?
Pigs and ruminants
Supplies right cranial lobe
Branches off trachea, cranial to the tracheal bifurcation
Tertiary bronchi supply what?
Which lung lobe is missing in horses?
What is the epiploic foramen bordered by?
Hepatic portal vein, liver and caudal vena cava
What is the function of the platysma?
Which nerve supplies it?
Draws the commissure of the lips caudally
Cervical branch of facial nerve
What lies either side of the facial vein?
Mandibular lymph nodes (can be easily palpated)
Where do all the structures of the head drain through?
Retropharyngeal lymph nodes (just below wing of atlas)
Where does the parotid salivary gland open into?
What is it innervated by?
What type of saliva does it produce?
Where is its duct located?
Opens into the mouth on the buccal mucosa, at the level of the 4th upper premolar
Parasympathetic innervation is by glossopharyngeal, but the fibres reach the gland in a branch of the trigeminal
Runs across the masseter muscle
The mandibular salivary gland lies where?
What sort of saliva does it secret?
Where does its duct run?
What is it innervated by?
In the v formed by the linguofacial and maxillary veins
Mixed (serous and mucous)
Its duct passes medioventrally and runs with the sublingual duct
Parasympathetic innervation is by facial nerve fibres passing in the chorda tympani to a branch of trigeminal, then on to the gland
What is the masseter innervated by?
Mandibular branch of trigeminal
What are the 2 bellies of digastricus innervated by?
Rostral belly: trigeminal
Caudal belly: facial
What is the mylohyoid innervated by?
Mylohyoid nerve from mandibular branch of trigeminal
What attaches the tongue to the floor of the mouth?
What are the pair of swellings at the rostral edge of this?
Sublingual caruncles-site of orifices of the sublingual and mandibular ducts
What does the great auricular nerve of C2 supply?
Caudal ear muscles
The auriculopalpebral nerve is a branch of which nerve?
What does it further divide into?
Rostral auricular nerve (innervates rostral ear muscles) and palpebral nerve (innervates eyelid muscles)
What would be the effect of cutting the palpebral branch of the auriculopalpebral nerve?
Would be some drooping of eyelid, but an inability to fully close the eye, as palpebral branch supplies some muscles of upper eyelid: Orbicularis occuli, retractor anguli occuli, superciliaris.
However, the main retractor of the upper eyelid is the Levator Palpebrae Superioris, and as this is innervated by the occulomotor nerve, only a partial closure of the eye is observed
What does the facial nerve innervate?
Motor innervation to all superficial head and ear muscles, caudal belly of digastricus, platysma, stylohyoideus
Special visceral afferents (taste) to rostral 2/3 of tongue
General visceral efferents to lacrimal gland, mandibular and sublingual glands, and the nasal, buccal and lingual mucosa glands
What are the 3 main branches of the common carotid artery in the neck?
(Caudally to cranially)
Internal carotid artery
What are the main branches of the mandibular trigeminal nerve?
Auriculotemporal nerve (sensory to skin of ear and temple)
Mylohyoid nerve (motor to digastricus and mylohyoid muscles, sensory to skin)
Mandibular alveolar nerve (sensory to teeth and lips)
Lingual nerve (sensory to tongue)
Buccal nerve (sensory to cheek mucosa)
Which muscle runs inside the frenulum?