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Flashcards in GI Deck (39):
1

Annular pancreas is due to

Ventral pancreatic bud abnormally circles 2nd part of duodenum

2

Pancreas divisum is due to

Ventral and doral parts fail to fuse at 8wks

3

SAD PUCKER are retroperitoneal structures

  1. Suprarena gland
  2. Aorta and IVC
  3. Duodenum (2nd through 4th part)
  4. Pancrease (except the tail)
  5. Ureter
  6. Colon (Descending and Ascending)
  7. Kidneys
  8. Esophagus (Lower 2/3)
  9. Rectum

4

Gastrohepatic ligament contains

Gastic arteries

5

Gastrocolic ligament contains

Gastroepiploic arteries

6

Gastrosplenic ligament contains

Short gastric

Left gastroepiploic

7

In the Femoral regioin, NAVEL from Lateral to Medial

  • Nerve
  • Artery
  • Vein
  • Empty
  • Lymphatics

8

Indirect inguinal hermia

  • Goes through the internal (deep) inguinal ring, into the scrotum
  • Lateral to inferior epigastric artery
  • Occurs in infants due to failure of processus vaginalis to close

9

Direct inguinal hermia

  • Through inguinal (Hesselbach) triangle abd buldges directly through abdominal wall
  • Medial to inferior epigastric artery

10

Parietal cells and chief cells found in

Body of stomach

11

D cells, G cells, and Mucous cells found in

Antrum of Stomach

12

I cells, S cells, and K cells found in

Duodenum

13

Esophagitis associated with

  1. Candida (white pseudomembrane)
  2. HSV-1 (punched-out ulcers)
  3. CMV (linear ulcer)

14

Acute gastritis is caused by (6)

  1. Stress
  2. NSAIDs
  3. Alcohol
  4. Uremia
  5. Burns (Curling ulcer)
  6. Brain injusry (Cushings ulcer: increase vagal stimulation)

15

Ménétrier disease is

Gastric hypertophy with protein loss, parietal cell atrophy, and increase mucous cells 

16

Whipple disease findings

PAS+ foamy macrophages 

17

Whipple disease presentations

  1. Cardiac symptoms
  2. Arthralgias
  3. Neurologic symptoms

18

Celiac sprue primarly affect

Distal duodenum and/or proximal jejunum

19

Celiac sprue associated with 

Dermatitis herpetiformis

20

Zenker diverticulum located

at Killian triangle between the thyropharyngeal and circopharyngeal parts of the inferior pharyngeal constrictor

21

Hirschsprung associated with

RET gene mutation

Down's syndrome

22

What serum marker is decreased in Wilson disease

Ceruloplasmin

23

Where are Mallory bodies seen

Alcoholic hepatitis

24

25

Copper is Hella BAD in Wilson disease (11)

  1. Ceruloplasmin decreased
  2. Cirrhosis
  3. Corneal deposits
  4. Copper accumulation
  5. Carcinoma
  6. Hemolytic anemia
  7. Basal ganglia degeneration leading to Parkisonian like
  8. Asterixis
  9. Dementia
  10. Dyskinesia
  11. Dysarthria
     

26

Hemochromatosis Can Cause Deposits

Cirrhosis

CHF

DM

27

-tidines are

H2 blockers

28

-tidines used for

  1. Peptic ulcer
  2. Gastritis
  3. Mild esophageal reflux

29

-prazoles are

Proton pump inhibitors

30

-prazole clinical use

  1. Peptic ulcer
  2. Gastritis
  3. Esophagel reflux
  4. Zollinger-Ellison

31

Bismuth mechanism of action

Bind to ulcer base and provides physical protection and allowing bicarb secretion to reestablish pH gradient

32

Sucralfate mechanism of action

Bind to ulcer base and provides physical protection and allowing bicarb secretion to reestablish pH gradient

33

Misoprostol mechanism of action

PGE1 analog that increases production and secretion of gastic mucous barrier

34

Misoprostol toxicity

Contraindicated in whomen of childbearing potential because it is abortifacient

35

Octreotide mechanism of action

Long-acting somatostatin analog

36

Infliximab is

Monoclonal antibody to TNF-α

37

Infliximab used for (5)

  1. Crohn
  2. UC
  3. RA
  4. Ankylosing spondylitis
  5. Psoriasis

38

Ondansetron is

5-HT3 antagonist causing decreased vagal stimulation

39

Metoclopramide is

D2 receptor antagonist increasing resting tone, contractility, LES tone, motility