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Flashcards in Neuro Deck (136):
1

Adult derivatives of Telencephalon

Cerebral hemispheres

Lateral ventricles

2

Adult derivatives of Diencephalon

Thalamus

3rd ventricle

3

Adult derivatives of Mesencephalon

Midbrain

Aqueduct

4

Adult derivatives of the Metencephalon

Pons

Cerebellum

Upper part of 4th ventricle

5

Adult derivatives of Myelencephalon

Medulla

Lower part of 4th ventricle

6

Arnold-Chiari malformation (Chiari 2) is

Significant herniation of cerebellar tonsils and vermis through forament magnum with aqueductal stenosis and hydrocephalus

7

Anterior 2/3 of tongue sensation

Maxillary (CN 5)

8

Anterior 2/3 of tongue taste via

Facial (CN 7)

9

Posterior 1/3 of tongue taste and sensation

Glossopharangeal (CN 9)

10

Motor invervation of tongue via

Hypoglossal (CN 12)

11

Oligodendroglia damaged in (3)

  1. MS
  2. PML
  3. Leukodystrophies

12

Schwann cells damaged in

Guillan-Barré

13

C fibers are

Slow, unmyelinated fibers

14

Aδ fibers are

Fast, myelinated fibers

15

What types of fibers are located in Free nerve endings

C

16

What type of fibers located in Meissner corpuscles

Large, myelinated fibers that adapt quickly

17

Meissner corpuscles found in

Glabrous (hairless) skin

18

Meissner corpuscles sense

Dynamic, fine/light touch

Position

19

Pacinian corpuscles found in

Deep skin layers

Ligaments

Joints

20

Pacinian corpuscles sense

Vibration

Pressure

21

Merkel discs found in

Basal epidermal layer

Hair follicles

22

Merkel discs sense

Pressure

Deep static touch

Position

23

What layer of peripheral N must be joined to save limb in reattachment

Perineurium

24

NE synthesis

Locus ceruleus in pons

25

Dopamine synthesis

Ventral tegmental and SNc in midbrain

26

5-HT synthesis

Raphe nucleus in Pons, Medulla, and Midbrain

27

ACh synthesis

Basal nucleus of Meynert

28

GABA synthesis

Nucleus accumbens

29

Leptin inhibits 

Lateral area of hypothalamus 

30

Circadian rhythm controls nocturnal release of (4)

  1. ACTH
  2. Prolactin
  3. Melatonin
  4. NE

31

Extraocular movement during REM sleep is due to

PPRF activity

32

Limbic system famous 5 F's

  1. Feeding
  2. Fleeing
  3. Fighting
  4. Feeling
  5. Fuckinv

33

Structures of limbic system (5)

  1. Hippocampus
  2. Amygdala
  3. Fornix
  4. Mammillary body
  5. Cingulate gyrus

34

Striatum of Basal ganglia inculdes

Putamen (motor)

Caudate (cognitive)

35

Lentiform of Basal ganglia includes

Putamen

Globus pallidus

36

Hemiballismus lesion

Contralateral subthalamic nucleus

37

Chorea lesion

Basal ganglia

38

Athetosis lesion

Basal ganglia

39

Treat essential tremors 

β-blockers

Primidone

40

Broca area

Motor region of speach located in frontal dominant lobe

41

Wernicke area

Associative auditory cortex in temporal dominant lobe

42

Bilateral lesion of Amygdala leads to

Klüver-Bucy syndrome

43

Bilateral lesion of Amygdala associated with

HSV-1

44

Right parietal-temporal cortex lesions leads to

Contralateral spatial neglect (Agnosia)

45

Left parietal-temporal cortex lesion leads to

Gerstmann syndrome:

Agraphia, acalculia, finger agnosia, and left-right disorientation

46

Lesion of RAS in midbrain leads to

Reduced level of arousal and wakefullness (coma)

47

Lesion of Cerebellar hemisphere leads to

Ipsilateral intention tremor, limb ataxia and loss of balance

48

Lesion of subthalamic nucleus leads to

Contralateral hemiballismus

49

PPRF lesion leads to

Eyes look away from side of lesion

50

Frontal eye field lesion leads to

Eyes look toward lesion

51

Conduction Aphasia due to damage to

Left superior temporal lobe

Left supramarginal gyrus

52

Secondarly to unmanaged HT leads to

Lacunar infact leading to contralateral hemiparesis/hemplegia

53

Medial medullary syndrome due to infarct of

Paramedian branches of ASA and vertebral A

54

Wallenberge (lateral medullary) syndrome due to incarct of

PICA

55

Charcot-Bouchard microaneurysm associated with 

Chronic HT affects small vessels in basal ganglia and thalamus

56

Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus leads to

Wet, Wobbly and Wacky

57

Spinal cord extends to

L1-L2

58

Subarachnoid space lower border is

S@

59

Dorsal column senses (4)

  1. Pressure
  2. Vibration
  3. Fine touch
  4. Proprioception

60

Spinothalamic tract senses

Lateral: Pain and Temperature

Anterior: Crude touch and pressure

61

Werdnig-Hoffman disease is

Congenital degeneration of anterior horns of spinal cord destroying LMN leading to Floppy baby

AR

62

ALS due to

Defect in superoxide dismutase 1

63

ALS treatment

Riluzole

64

Tabes dorsalis associated with

Charcot joints

Shooting pain

Argyll Robertson pupils

65

Poliomyelitis is

Causes by poliovirus causing destruction to anterior horn of spinal cord causing LMN death

66

Friedreich ataxia symptoms (7)

  1. Staggering gate
  2. Frequent falling
  3. Nystagmus
  4. Dysarthria
  5. Pes cavus
  6. Hammer toes
  7. Hypertorphic cardiomyopathy

67

Reflex song

S1, 2: Buckle my shoe (Achille reflex)

L3, 4: Kick the door (Patellar reflex)

C5, 6: Pick up sticks (Bicept reflex)

C7, 9: Lay them strait (Tricept reflex)

68

CN that lie medially at brain stem

CN 3

CN 6

CN 12

69

Parinauld syndrome is

Paralysis of conjugate vertical gaze due to lesion in superior colliculi

70

Some Say Marry Money But My Brother Says Big Brains Matter Most

  1. Sesnory: Olfactory (CN1)
  2. Sesnory: Optic (CN2)
  3. Motor: Oculomotor (CN3)
  4. Motor: Trochlear (CN4)
  5. Both: Trigeminal (CN5)
  6. Motor: Abducent (CN6)
  7. Both: Facial (CN7)
  8. Sensory: Vestibulocochlear (CN8)
  9. Both: Glossopharyngeal (CN9)
  10. Both: Vagus (CN10)
  11. Motor: Accessory (CN11)
  12. Motor: Hypoglossal (CN12)

71

Corneal reflex

Afferent: CN 5 (nasociliary branch of ophthalmic)

Efferent: CN 7 (temporal branch: orbicularis oculi)

72

Lacrimation reflex

Afferent: CN 5

Efferent: CN7

73

Jaw jerk reflex

Afferent: CN 5

Efferent: CN 5 (motor-masseter)

74

Pupillary reflex

Afferent: CN 2

Efferent: CN 3

75

Gag reflex

Afferent: CN 9

Efferent: CN 10

76

Nucleus Solitarius

CN: 7, 9, 10

Visceral Sensory information: (taste, baroreceptor, gut distention)

77

Nucleus Ambiguus

CN: 9, 10, 11

Motor innervation of pharynx, laynx and upper esophagus

78

What exits out of Superior orbital fissure

CN 3, 4, 51, 6, ophthalmic vein, sympathetic fibers

79

What exits out of Forament Rotundum

CN 52

80

What exits out of Foramen Ovale

CN 53

81

What exits out of Foramen Spinosum

Middle meningeal artery

82

What exits out of Jugular foramen

CN 9, 10, 11, Jugular vein

83

CN 5 motor lesion results in

Jaw deviated toward side of lesion

84

CN 10 lesion results in

Uvula deviated away from side of lesion

85

CN 12 lesion (LMN) leads to

Tongue deviates toward side of lesion

86

Abnormal Rinne test:

Bone > Air

Conduction hearing loss

87

Weber test localized to affected ear in

Conductive hearing loss

88

Rinne test result in sensorineural hearing loss

Normal (air > bone)

89

Weber test localizes to unaffected ear in

Sensorineural hearing loss

90

Uveitis associated with (5)

  1. Sarcoid
  2. RA
  3. Juvenile idiopathis arthritis
  4. TB
  5. HLA-B27 associated conditions

91

Retinitis due to (3)

  1. CMV
  2. HSV
  3. HZV

92

93

1st order Neurons in Miosis of pupil is

Edinger-Westphal nucleus

94

MLF allows crosstalk between

CN 6 and CN3

95

Treatment of MS

Natalizumab

β-interferon

96

Guillian-Barré presentation

Symmetric ascending muscle weakness/paralysis begging in lower extremities

97

Guillian-Barré is

Autoimmune destruction of Schwann cells associated with C. jejuni and CMV

98

PML is due to

Destruction of Oligodendrocytes associated with JC virus in AIDs

99

Metachromatic leukodystrophy is

AR lysosomal storage disease due to Arylsulfatase A deficiency

100

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is

Also known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN)

AD 

101

Charcot-Marie-Tooth diesease associated with

Scoliosis and foot deformities

102

Sturge-Weber syndrome is

Activating mutation of GNAQ gene

103

STURGE-Weber syndrome

  • Sporadic, port-wine Stain
  • Tram track Ca on opposing gyri
  • Unilateral
  • Retardatio
  • Glaucoma
  • Epilepsy

104

Tuberous sclerosis are HAMARTOMAS

  • Hamartoma in CNS and skin
  • Angiofibromas
  • Mitral regurgitation
  • Ash-leaf spots
  • Rhabdomyoma, Cardiac
  • Tuberous sclerosis
  • Autosomal dOminant
  • Mental retardation
  • Angiomyolipoma, Renal
  • Seizure, Shagreen patchs

105

Meningioma arises from

Arachnoid cells

106

Hemanvioblastoma associated with

von Hippel-Lindau

Secondary polycythemia

107

Rosenthal fibers seen in

Astrocytoma

108

Homer-Wright rosettes seen in

Medulloblastoma

109

Perivascular rosettes seen in

Ependymoma

110

What drugs decrease aqueous humor synthesis used for Glaucoma

  1. α-Agonist:
    1. Epinephrine
    2. Brimondine
  2. β-Blockers:
    1. Timolol
    2. Betaxolol
    3. Carteolol

111

Opioid analgesics (8)

  1. Morphine
  2. Fentanyl
  3. Codeine
  4. Loperamide
  5. Methadone
  6. Meperidine
  7. Dextromethorphan
  8. Diphenoxylate

112

Butorphanol is

μ-opioid receptor partial agonist and κ-opioid receptor agonist

113

Advantages of using Butorphanol for pain

Causes less respiratory depression

114

Tramadol is

Very weak opioid agonist that also inhibits serotonin and NE reuptake

115

Ethosuximide MOA

Blocks thalamic T-type Ca channels used for Abscence seizures

116

Ethosuximide FGHIJ toxicity

  • Fatigue
  • GI distress
  • Headache
  • Itching
  • Stevens-Johnson

117

Benzo MOA

Increase GABAA action used for Status epilepticus

118

Phenytoin MOA

Increase Na channel inactivation used for all seizures other than Absence

119

Phenytoin side effects (11)

  1. Nystagmus
  2. Diplopia
  3. Ataxia
  4. Sedation
  5. Gingival hyperplasia
  6. Hirsutism
  7. Peripheral neuropathy
  8. Megaloblastic anemia
  9. Teratogenesis
  10. SLE
  11. Stevens-Johnsons

120

Carbamazepine MOA

Increase Na channel inactivation used

121

Carbamazepine toxicity (6)

  1. Diplopia
  2. Ataxia
  3. Agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia
  4. Liver toxicity
  5. SIADH
  6. Stevens-Johnson

122

1st line for trigeminal neuralgia

Carbamazepine

123

Valproic acid MOA

Increase Na channel inactivation

Increase GABA concentration by inhibiting GABA transaminase

124

Valproic acid toxicity (4)

  1. GI
  2. Hepatotoxicity
  3. Tremor
  4. Weight gain

125

Gabapentin MOA

Inhibits high-voltage-activated Ca channel

GABA analog

126

Topiramate MOA

Blocks Na channels

Increase GABA action

127

Lamotrigine MOA

Blocks voltage-gated Na channels

128

Tiagabine MOA

Increase GABA by inhibiting re-uptake

129

Vigabatrin MOA

Increase GABA by inhibiting GABA transaminase

130

Anesthetics with increased solubility in lipids = 

Increased potency = 1/MAC

131

IV anesthetics (5)

  1. Thiopental (barb)
  2. Midazolam (BZ)
  3. Ketamine (PCP analog)
  4. Opioids
  5. Propofol

132

Ketamine MOV

Blocks NMDA receptors

133

Memantine is

NMDA antagonist used for Alzheimers

134

Tetrabenazine and reserpine are

Huntington drugs that inhibit Vesicular Monamine Transporter (VMAT)

135

Haloperidol is

Dopamine receptor antagonist used for Huntington

136

-triptans are

5-HT1B/1D agonists that inhibit trigeminal N acivation