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Flashcards in Renal Deck (77):
1

Most common site of obstruction causing Hydronephrosis in fetus

Ureteropelvic junction

2

POTTER syndrome associated with

  1. Pulmonary hypoplasia
  2. Oligohydramnios
  3. Twisted face
  4. Twisted skin
  5. Extremity defects
  6. Renal failure in utero

3

Multicystic dysplastic kiney is due to

Abnormal interaction between ureteric bud and metanephric mesenchyme

4

Renal clearance C=

UV/P

5

GFR=

Uinulin x V/Pinulin = Cinulin

6

Effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) estimated using

PAH

7

Filtration Fraction (FF) =

GFR / RPF

8

Affect of Prostaglandins on Afferent arterioles

Dilate

Increase RPF

Increase GFR

9

Angiotensin 2 affect on Efferent arterioles

Constrict

Decrease RPF

Increase GFR

Increase FF

10

Afferent arteriole constriction causes

Decrease RPF

Decrease GFR

11

Efferent arteriole constriction causes

Decrease RPF

Increase GFR

Increase FF

12

An increase in Plasma protein concentration causes

No change of RPF

Decrease GFR

Decrease FF

13

Decrease in Plasma protein concentration causes

no change on RPF

Increase GFR

Increase FF

14

Hartnup disease is

AR deficiency of Neutral Amino Acid (Tryptophan) transporters in PCT

15

Hartnup disease leads to

Pellagra-like:

Dermatitis

Diarrhea

Dementia

16

Fanconi syndrome is

Renal tubular defect that causes reabsorptive defect in PCT

17

Fanconi syndrome leads to

  1. Metabolic acidosis
  2. Wilson
  3. Ischemia
  4. Nephrotoxins

18

Bartter syndrome is

AR renal tubular defect causing reabsorptive defect in TAL

19

Bartter syndrome leads to (3)

  1. Hypokalemia 
  2. Metabolic alkalosis
  3. Hypercalciuria

20

Gitelman syndrome is

AR renal tubular defect causing reabsorptive defect of NaCl in DCT

21

Gitelman syndrome leads to

Hypokalemia

Metabolic alkalosis

22

Liddle syndrome is

AD renal tubular defect causing an increased Na reabsorption in Distal and CT

23

Liddle syndrome leads to (4)

  1. HT
  2. Hypokalemia
  3. Metabolic alkalosis
  4. Decrease aldosterone

24

FABulous Glittering Liquid

  • FAnconi: PCT
  • Bartter: TAL AR
  • Gitelman: DCT AR
  • Liddle: CT AD

25

What shifts K out of cell causing Hyperkalemia

DO Insulin LAβ

  • Digitalis
  • HyperOsmolarity
  • Insulin
  • Lysis of cells
  • Acidosis
  • β-adrenergic antagonist

26

Low serum Na cuases (4)

  1. Nausea
  2. Malaise
  3. Stupor
  4. Coma

27

High serum Na causes (3)

  1. Irritability
  2. Stupor
  3. Coma

28

Low serum K causes (4)

  1. U wave on EKG
  2. Flattened T wave
  3. Arrhythmia
  4. Muscle weakness

29

High serum K causes (4)

  1. Wide QRS
  2. Peaked T wave
  3. Arrhythmia
  4. Muscle weakness

30

Low serum Ca causes (3)

  1. Tetany
  2. Seizures
  3. QT prolongation

31

High serum Ca causes (4)

  1. Stones
  2. Bone pains
  3. Abdominal pain
  4. Anxiety, altered mental status

32

Low serum Mg causes (2)

  1. Tetany
  2. Torsades de pointes

33

High serum Mg causes (6)

  1. Decrease DTR
  2. Lethargy
  3. Bradycardia
  4. Hypotension
  5. Cardiac arrest
  6. Hypocalcemia

34

MUDPILES causes anion gab metabolic acidosis

  • Methanol
  • Uremia
  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis
  • Propylene glycol
  • Isoniazid/Iron
  • Lactic acidosis
  • Ethylene glycol
  • Saliciate/Sepsis

35

HARD-ASS causes nonanion gap Metabolic acidosis

  • Hypercholerima
  • Addison disease
  • Renal tubular acidosis
  • Diarrhea
  • Acetozolamide
  • Spironolactone
  • Saline infusion

36

FSGN LM

Segmental sclerosis and hyalinosis

37

FSGN EM

Effacement of foot process similar to Minimal change

38

FSGN associated with (3)

  1. HIV
  2. Sickle cell
  3. Heroin abuse

39

Membranous GN LM

Diffuse capillary and GBM thickening

40

Membranous GN IF

Granular as a result of immune complex deposition

41

Nephrotic presentation of SLE presents as

Membranous GN

42

Membranous GN EM

Spike and dome with Subepithelial deposits

43

Membranous GN associated with (3)

  1. SLD
  2. AB to phospholipase A2
  3. Tumors

44

Amyloidosis LM

Congo red stains with apple-green birefringence

45

MPGN1 IF

Subendothelial immune complex deposits with Granular IF

46

MPGN1 EM

Tram-track appearance

47

MPGN1 associated with

HBV

HCV

48

MPGN2 Presents

Intramembranouse IC deposits

Dense deposits

49

PSGN LM

Glomeruli enlarged and hypercellular

50

PSGN IF

  1. Starry sky granular appearance 
  2. Lumpy bumpy due to IgG, IgM, and C3 deposition

51

PSGN EM

Subepithelial immune complex

52

PSGN associated with

Group A streptococcal infextion

53

Diffuse proliferative GN LM

Wire looping of capillaries

54

Diffuse proliferative GN EM

Sebendothelial and intramembranous IgG

55

Diffuse proliferative GN IF

Granular

56

Berger disease seen in

Henoch-Schönlein purpura

57

RCC originates from

PCT cells

58

RCC manifests clinically with (6)

  1. Hematuria
  2. Palpable mass
  3. secondary Polycythemia
  4. Flank pain
  5. Fever
  6. Weight loss

59

Wilms tumor (nephroblastoma) WAGR

  • Wilms tumor
  • Aniridia
  • Genitourinary malformation
  • Retardation

60

Transitional cell carcinoma of Bladder is

Pee SAC

  • Phenacetin 
  • Smoking
  • Aniline dyes
  • Cyclophosphamide

61

Acute pyelonephritis presents with (5)

  1. Dysuria
  2. Fever
  3. Costovertebral angle tenderness
  4. Nausea
  5. Vomiting

62

Thyroidization of kidney seen in

Chronic pyelonephritis

63

Tubulointerstitial nephritis is

Drug-induced interstitial nephritis

64

Key findings of ATN

Granular (muddy brown) casts

65

3 phases of ATN

  1. Inciting event
  2. Maintenance phase
    1. Oliguric lasts 1-3 wks
    2. Risk of Hyperkalemia
    3. Metabolic acidosis
  3. Recovery phase
    1. Polyuric
    2. BUN and serum creatinine fall
    3. Hypokalemia

66

What causes nephrotoxic ATN (6)

  1. MG
  2. Radiocontrast agents
  3. Lead 
  4. Cisplatin
  5. Crush injury (myoglobinuria)
  6. Hemoglobinuria

67

Renal Papillary necrosis associated with (4)

  1. DM
  2. Acute pyelonephritis
  3. Chronic phenacetin use
  4. Sickle cell anemia and trait

68

Consequence of renal failure

MAD HUNGER

  1. Metabolic Acidosis
  2. Dyslipidemia
  3. Hyperkalemia
  4. Uremia
  5. Na and water retention
  6. Growth retardation
  7. EPO faiulre causing anemia
  8. Renal osteodystrophy

69

Acetazolamide MOA

CA-inhibitor

Decrease total-body bicarb stores

70

Acetazolamide used for (5)

  1. Glaucoma
  2. Urinary alkalinization
  3. Metabolic alkalosis
  4. Altitude sickness
  5. Pseduotumore cerebri

71

Acetazolamide toxicity (3)

  1. Hypercholermic metabolic acidosis
  2. Paresthesias
  3. Sulfa allergy

72

Furosemide MA (4)

  1. Loop diuretic
  2. Inhibits cotransport system (Na/K/2 Cl) of TAL
  3. Stimulates PGE release
  4. Increase Ca excretion

73

Furosemide used for (3)

  1. Edematous state
  2. HT
  3. HyperCa

74

Furosemide toxicity OH DANG

  • Ototoxicity
  • Hypokalemia
  • Dehydration
  • Allergy (SULFA)
  • Nephritis (INTERSTITIAL)
  • Gout

75

Ethacrynic acid is

Loop diuretic that is NOT a sulfonamide

76

Thiazide clinical use (5)

  1. HT
  2. CHF
  3. Idiopathic Hypercalciuria
  4. Nephrogenic DI
  5. Osteoporosis

77

Thiazide Toxicity (7)

  1. Hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis
  2. Hyponatremia
  3. Hyperglycemia
  4. Hyperlipidiemia
  5. Hyperuricemia
  6. Hypercalcemia
  7. Sulfa allergy