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Flashcards in Behavior Science Deck (34):
1

Cross-sectional study measures

Disease prevalence

2

Case-control study measures

Odds Ratio

3

Cohort study compares

a group with a given exposure or risk factor to a group without such exposure

Does exposure increase the likelihood of disease

4

Cohort study measures

Relative risk

5

Sensitivity (True-positive rate) =

TP/ (TP+FN)

6

Sensitivity is SN-N-OUT

Highly SeNsitive test when Negative, rules OUT disease

7

Specificity (True-negative rate) =

TN/ (TN+FP)

8

Specificity is SP-P-IN

Highly SPecific test, when Positive, rules IN diease

9

Positive predictive value =

TP/ (TP+FP)

10

PPV is 

Probability that person actually has the disease given a positive test result

11

Negative predictive value=

TN/ (FN+TN)

12

Odds ratio is

odds that the group with the dieases was exposed to a risk factor

13

OR=

ad/bc

14

RR=

[a/(a+b)] / [c/(c+d)]

15

Attributable risk (AR)=

[a/(a+b)] - [c/(c+d)]

16

Examples of selection bias

Berkson bias

Loss to follow up

Healthy worker and volunteer bias

17

Berkson bias example

A study looking only at inpatients

18

Hawthorne effect

Groups who know they are being studied behave differently than they would otherwise

Known as Measurement bias

19

+/- 1 Standard deviation equals

68%

20

+/- 2 Standard deviation equals

95%

21

+/- 3 standard deviation equals

99.7%

22

Positive skew means

Mean > Median > Mode

Peak shifts to the left

23

Negative skew means

Mean < Median < Mode

Peak shifts to the right

24

Type 1 error is

Stating that there is an effect or difference when none exists

25

Type 2 error is

Stating that there is not an effect or difference when on exists

26

t-test checks

difference between means of 2 groups

27

ANOVA checks

difference between means of 3 or more groups

28

Chi-square checks

difference between 2 or more percentages or proportions of categorical outcomes

29

Surrogate decision maker priority

  1. Spouse
  2. Adult child
  3. Parents
  4. Adult siblings

30

Motor characteristics of Infant

  1. Primitive reflexes disappear
    1. Moro (3 mon)
    2. Rooting (4 mon)
    3. Palmar (6 mon)
    4. Babinski (12 mon)
  2. Posture
    1. Crawls (8 mon)
    2. Stands (10 mon)
    3. Walks (12-18 mon)
  3. Picks
  4. Points

31

Social characteristics of infant

  1. Social smile
  2. Stranger anxiety (6 mon)
  3. Separation anxiety (9 mon)

32

Motor characteristics of toddler

  1. Climbs stairs
  2. Cubes staged
  3. Cultured (20 mon)
  4. Kicks ball (24 mon)

33

Social characteristics of toddler

  1. Recreation- parallel play
  2. Rapprochement
  3. Realization

34

Presbycusis is due to

Destruction of hair cells at the cochlear base