Flashcards in GI Bible Deck (66)
which nerve supplies the rectum?
inferior rectal nerve
how is H. Pylori diagnosed/treated?
diagnosed via Urea breath test
Treated with triple therapy:
- PPI + amoxy (metronidazole if allergic) + clarythromicin
what differentiates a gastric vs duodenal ulcer?
duodenal relieved by milk
what is the sign of achalasia and how is it treated?
birds beak appearance on barium swallow
hellers cardiomyotomy or balloon dilatation
what is the acute presentation of oesophageal varices?
massive bleeding - haematomesis and malaena
history of liver disease or portal hypertension
how is an oesophageal variceal bleed treated?
recuscitation (correct clotting abnormalities)
Sengstaken Blakermore Tube
How are oesophageal varices prevented?
Endoscopy and banding
what are some trademarks of crohns?
recurrent oral stomatitis
deep fissuring ulceration of mucosa
what is the treatment for crohns?
immunosuppression - Azathioprine
Steroids - Prednisolone?
what is barrets oesophagus?
replacement of normal stratified squamous epithelium by simple columnar epithelium with goblet cells
- development of goblet cells = adenocarcinoma risk
what is murphy's sign?
Tests for gallbladder inflammation
Examiner hooks fingers under liver and asks patient to exhale, if gallbladder descends into hands causing pain = inflammation
what is duke's classification?
staging system for colorectal cancer
A = confined to submucosa
B1 = not crossed bowel wall
B2 = crossed bowel wall
C = not crossed bowel wall + lymph node metastases
D = crossed bowel wall + lymph node metastases
how is ascites managed?
what are the side effects of spironolactone?
what can hyperkalaemia cause?
risk of arrhythmais
what does thumb printing at the splenic flexure indicate?
what is another name for the external urethral orifice?
which foods take the longest to digest?
what is the difference between haemorrhoids and rectal prolapse?
- prolapse of rectal venous plexus due to chronic constipation/pregnancy/portal hypertension
Rectal prolapse = the actual rectal tissue comes out
What does BUFALO stand for (sepsis management)?
Urine output (measure)
what is wilsons disease?
autosomal recessive disease of copper metabolism
what is grey turner's sign?
bruising of flanks
what is Cullen's sign?
what are the symptoms of acute pancreatitis?
grey turner's sign
epigastric pain radiating to the back
what is virchows node?
left supraclavicular lymph node
enlarged in gastric cancer
what do signet ring cells on biopsy indicate?
diffuse stomach cancer (linitis plastica)
what does high AFP (alphafeto protein) indicate?
what will oesophageal spasm look like on barium swallow?
abdominal pain and diarrhoea after sour milk or shellfish?