Flashcards in Ophthalmology Conditions Deck (55)
how does blepharitis present?
anterior ve posterior blepharitis?
anterior = usually a bacterial infection (Staph)
dandruff in eyelashes
posterior = meibomian gland dysfunction, glands become blocked so tear film becomes unstable
how is blepharitis managed?
primarily targeted at lid hygiene
artificial tears for comfort
thick sticky discharge
usually unilateral but progresses to bilateral
what usually causes bacterial conjunctivitis?
h. influenzae (esp children)
how is bacterial conjunctivitis managed?
usually self limiting
chloramphenicol drop if severe or persistent
how does viral conjunctivitis present?
may have had a recent cold/URTI
follicles on lids
what usually causes viral conjunctivitis?
how is viral conjunctivitis managed?
self limiting but very contagious
good lid hygiene
how does chlamydial conjunctivitis present?
on-going red eye (2 or more weeks)
rice grain follicles on lids
unresponsive to previous treatment
how is chlamydial conjunctivitis managed?
what condition may present with blue/green discolouration in the eye?
how does keratitis present?
characteristic feature of bacterial keratitis? how is this managed?
required debridement and admission for hourly drops of fluroquinolones
requires corneal scrape to determine antibiotic sensitivities
what usually causes viral keratitis and how does this present?
herpes simplex = terminal end bulbs
herpes zoster = involvement of ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve (unilateral vesicular rash, Hutchinson's sign)
how is viral keratitis managed?
HSV = acyclovir
HZ = ocular lubricants and systemic pain relief
main risk factor for keratitis?
contact lens wearer
how does anterior uveitis present?
reduced vision (especially accommodation)
photophobia (can be recurring)
what are the 5 types of anterior uveitis?
infective (HSV, HZ)
which autoimmune conditions are associated with anterior uveitis?
reiters (reactive arthritis)
what is reiters syndrome?
reactive arthritis with triad
signs of anterior uveitis on investigation?
cells and flare in anterior chamber seen on slit lamp investigation
synechiae (misshapen pupil)
how is anterior uveitis managed?
topical steroids (prednisolone acetate) and cyclopentolate
how does cataract present?
gradual deterioration (over several years) in vision
opacity in the lens
what can cause cataract?
most are age related
how is cataract managed?
what is glaucoma?
group of diseases characterised by progressive neuropathy resulting in characteristic visual field defects due to damage to individual bundles of nerve fibres in the optic nerve head)
what increases risk of angle closure glaucoma?
+ve family history
shallow anterior compartment
hypermetropic eye prescription
how does angle colure glaucoma present?
often in the evening
cells and flare
very high intraocular pressure (40+ mmHg)