Glaucoma, Allergic Conjunctivitis, Other Ophthalmics & Optics Flashcards Preview

NAPLEX > Glaucoma, Allergic Conjunctivitis, Other Ophthalmics & Optics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Glaucoma, Allergic Conjunctivitis, Other Ophthalmics & Optics Deck (62):
0

What does the abbreviation 'AD' stand for?

Right ear

1

What does the abbreviation 'AS' stand for?

Left Ear

2

What does the abbreviation 'AU' stand for?

Each Ear

3

What does the abbreviation 'OD' stand for?

Right Eye

4

What does the abbreviation 'OS' stand for?

Left Eye

5

What does the abbreviation 'OU' stand for?

Each Eye

6

What's req b4 using suspensions?

Shake prior to use

7

What's glaucoma?

An eye dx caused by an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP)

8

Types of glaucoma

Angle-closure (closed-closure) - treated in hospital and is a medical
emergency

Open-closure glaucoma - more common, tx with eyedrops

9

List risk factors for glaucoma

FH

Increased age

African Americans

Nearsightedness (myopia)

10

List drugs that may increase IOP and/or should be avoided if possible in pts with glaucoma

Cough/cold/motion sickness medications (antihistamines)

Anticholinergics e.g. Oxybutynin, tolterodine, benztropine, trihexyphenidyl, tricyclics

Chronic corticosteroids, esp eye drops such as Prednisolone

Topiramate (Topamax)

11

What's first line tx for glaucoma?

Prostaglandin Analogues (PAs) - lowers pip more than bb and approved for initial use

Beta-blockers - inexpensive and used if only 1 eye needs tx due to color discoloration from PAs.

12

MOA of bb in glaucoma?

Timolol 0.25% and 0.5% (Timoptic; XE)

13

Should bb used in glaucoma pts that also have asthma?

Best to try and avoid bb in asthma, COPD, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or advanced cardiac dx bcuz they are non-selective bb

14

MOA of prostaglandin analogs (PAs)?

Increase aqueous outflow

15

Agents under PAs?

Travoprost (Travatan Z)

Bimatoprost (Lumigan)

Latanoprost (Xalatan)

Unoprostone (Rescula)

Tafluprost (Zioptan)

16

Whats the brand name of Travoprost? (PAs)

Travantan Z

17

Whats the brand name of Bimatoprost? (PAs)

Lumigan

18

Whats the brand name of Latanoprost? (PAs)

Xalatan

19

How do u use PAs? Exception

Once daily at night

Except Rescula BID

20

SEs of PAs?

Brown pigment in iris

Longer lashes (goes away once drug is d/c)

Eye redness

21

Storage of Latanoprost (Xalatan)?

Unopened bottles in refrigerator

22

Which PAs doesn't contain benzalkonium chloride (BAK)? Advantage?

Travatan Z

May be helpful in pts with rxn to BAK or dry eye

23

Which PAs is discarded right after use?

Zioptan

24

MOA of Miotics?

Increase aqueous outflow

25

Miotics agents?

Carbachol (Isopto Carbachol, Miostat)

Pilocarpine (Isopto Carpine, Pilopine HS)

26

MOA of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors?

Reduce aqueous humor production

27

Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors agents?

Acetazolamide (Diamox)

Brinzolamide (Azopt)

Dorzolamide (Trusopt)

Dorzolamide + Timolol (Cosopt, Cosopt PF is single-dose)

28

Which Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors agents comes in an oral formulation?

Acetazolamide (Diamox)

May cause CNS effects (ataxia, confusion), photosensitivity/skin rash (including risk of SJS and TEN), anorexia, nausea and risk of hematological toxicities

29

MOA of Adrenergic Alpha-2 Agonists

Increase aqueous outflow, reduce production

30

Agents under Adrenergic Alpha-2 Agonists?

Apraclonidine (Iopidine)

Brimonidine (Alphagan P)

Brimonidine + Timolol (Combigan)

31

Brand name of Brimonidine? (Adrenergic Alpha-2 Agonists)

Alphagan P

32

Brand name of Brimonidine + Timolol? (Adrenergic Alpha-2 Agonists + bb)

Combigan

33

Brand name of Dorzolamide? (Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors)

Trusopt

34

Brand name of Dorzolamide + Timolol? (Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors + Timolol)

Cosopt

Cosopt PF (single dose)

35

What does the pt do after squeezing eye drops into their eye?

Press a finger btw their eye and the top of ur nose.

Press for at least 1 full min (or longer if instructed by dr)

This way, more of the medicine stays in your eye

You will be less likely to have SE

36

If pts is using more than 1 glaucoma med, how should they be used?

Wait at least 10 minutes to put 2nd medicine

37

Why are PAs (Travatan, Lumigan, Xalatan) not usually admin to pts with light eyes who have glaucoma in 1 eye only?

Risk of increase in brown pigment in iris and gradual changes in eye color

38

Howz unopened Latanoprost (Xalatan) stored?

Refrigerator

39

Is the use of Bimatoprost (Lattise) recommended with glaucoma med?

No. May reduced effectiveness of glaucoma med

40

Why is Timolol (Timoptic) not recommended in asthma, COPD, chronic bronchitis, emphysema or advanced cardiac dx?

Timolol may exacerbate these dx sx

41

Instructions to pt if eye drops are dispensed in Ocudose dispenser?

Unscrew cap by turning as indicated by the arrows on the top of cap, to open bottle

Don't pull the cap directly up and away from the bottle

Pulling the cap directly up prevent the dispenser from operating properly

42

List common agents known to cause vision changes/damage

Alpha blockers (floppy iris syndrome - cause difficulty in cataract surgery)

Amiodarone (corneal deposits, optic neuropathy)

Bisphosphonates (ocular inflammation)

Digoxin (yellow/green vision, blurriness, halos)

Ethambutol, Linezolid (optic neuropathy, esp, with chronic use)

Ezogabine (Potiga) (.retinal changes, vision loss)

Hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) (retinopathy)

Isoniazid (optic neuritis)

Isotretinion (reduced night vision which may be permanent, dry eyes/irritation)

Quinolones (retinal detachment)

Sildenafil (Viagra) and other PDE-5 inh used for ED and PAH (greenish tinge around objects, possible permanent vision loss in 1 or both eyes)

Tamoxifen (Nolvadex) (corneal changes, decreased color perception)

Telithromycin (blurry vision, diplopia)

Voriconazole (VFEND) (abnormal vision, color vision change, photophobia)

43

What's allergic conjunctivitis?

Clear thin membrane called the conjunctiva covers the eyeball and inside of the eyelids. If something irritates this covering,the eyes can become red, swollen and may itch

44

List the difference classes of pharmacologic tx used in allergic conjunctivitis

OTC -

Naphazoline/Pheniramine (Visine and others)

Antihistamine Ketotifen (Zaditor, Alaway)

45

What's the brand name of Naphazoline/Pheniramine OTC tx for allergic conjuctivitis?

Naphcon-A

Opcon-A

Visine-A

46

What's the brand name of Ketotifen (Antihistamine) OTC tx for allergic conjuctivitis?

Zaditor

Alaway

47

What's the brand name of Levocetirizine (antihistamine) Rx tx for allergic conjuctivitis?

Xyzal

48

What's the brand name of Emedastine (antihistamine) Rx tx for allergic conjuctivitis?

Emadine

49

Which Steroids: (short term use, caution for increased IOP) is Rx tx for allergic conjuctivitis?

Prednisolone acetate 1%

50

Counseling for eye drops use?

Temporary stinging

Limit contact lens use during infection

51

List Antibiotic eye drops used in pink eye

Azithromycin (Azasite)

Moxifloxacin (Vigamox)

Besifloxacin (Besivance)

Tobramycin/Dexamethasone (Antibiotic/steroid)

52

What's the brand name of Azithromycin (antibiotics used in allergic conjunctivitis)?

Azasite

53

What's the brand name of Moxifloxacin (antibiotics used in allergic conjunctivitis)?

Vigamox

54

What's the brand name of Besifloxacin (antibiotics used in allergic conjunctivitis)?

Besivance

55

Which antibiotics used in pink eye must be stored in refrigerator?

Azithromycin (Azasite)

Can last 14 days at room temp

56

What's first line tx for Blepharitis (Eyelid Inflammation)?

Warm compress such as washcloth to outer eyelids, gentle cleansing and gentle massage

This is considered first-line

57

Other tx of Blepharitis (Eyelid Inflammation)

Bacitracin or Erythromycin ointment, applied BID to QID

58

What meds are used for swimmers ear, otitis media pain?

Antipyrine and benzocaine (A/B Otic, Auralgan)

Benzocaine (Americaine Otic)

59

What meds are used for Outer ear infection (ear drops with antibiotics)?

Ciprofloxacin and hydrocortisone (Cipro HC)

Ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone (Ciprodex)

Ciprofloxacin (Floxin Otic, Floxin Otic Singles)

Neomycin and hydrocortisone (Cortisporin-TC)

60

What meds are used for Ear wax (cerumen) removal?

Carbamide peroxide (Debrox)

Triethanolamine (Cerumenex)

Antipyrine and benzocaine (Auralgan)

61

What step may be done in the doctors office after using ear wax removal for 2-3 days?

Ear wax removal

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