Flashcards in Glycolysis Deck (27):
Carbohydrates are broken down into ____ (glucose, galactose), which are then absorbed by intestinal lining by ___ ____
monosaccharides; facilitated diffusion
When your body intakes carbs and fats and breaks them down to form ATP, what are the chemical waste products?
Where does glycolysis occur in the cell?
Name the requirements of glycolysis and also the products
requirements: Glucose, 2 Pi, 2 ADP, 2 NAD+
products: 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2H, 2H2O
In glycolysis, one glucose molecule is covered to ___ pyruvate molecules
Glycolysis is the only pathway to produce ATP without ____
Availability of glucose for glycolysis is controlled by transport into the cell, which is regulated by _____
Glucokinase and Hexokinase can both catalyze the first step of glycolysis. Name the differences between them in regards to location, affinity, and inhibition by G-6-P
Glucokinase: liver and kidney; low affinity; not inhibited
Hexokinase: all tissues; high affinity; inhibited
True or false? The function of glucokinase is to remove glucose from the blood following a meal, while hexokinase acts at a constant rate
What is the key regulatory step of glycolysis and also the committed step?
F-6-P to F-1,6-BP
enzyme is phosphofructokinase
In the 6th step of glycolysis, G-3-P to 1,3-BPG, NAD+ must be regenerated for glycolysis to continue. True or false?
1,3-BPG is the source of 2,3-BPG in ____
Enolase is inhibited by ____
note: for estimation, blood sample is collected in tubes containing fluoride to inhibit glycolysis
After glycolysis has finished, what determines which of the two pathways is followed (aerobic or anaerobic)?
redox state of tissue
In aerobic glycolysis, pyruvate is converted to acetyl-CoA in the ___ for the TCA cycle
The oxidation of acetyl-CoA by the TCA will account for additional ___ molecules of ATP per glucose molecule
Under aerobic conditions, NADH produced may be effectively reoxidized by the mitochondria through the "____ ____"
In regards to anaerobic glycolysis, what enzyme is used to regret NAD+?
The NAD+ must be regenerated for glycolysis to continue. Since NADH cannot cross mitochondrial membrane, the reducing equivalents from the NADH formed in glycolysis are taken up into mitochondria for oxidation by ____ mechanism
List the steps of glycolysis that use ATP and produce ATP
glucose to G-6-P = -1 ATP
F-6-P to F-1,6,-BP = -1 ATP
Glycerate-1,3-BP to 3-P-glycerate = + 2 ATP
PEP to pyruvate = +2ATP
net gain: 2 ATP
Regulation of glycolysis is controlled primarily by three enzymes: hexokinase, PFK-1, and pyruvate kinase. Give the activator and inhibitor of hexokinase
inhibitor: G-6-P, ATP
Regulation of glycolysis is controlled primarily by three enzymes: hexokinase, PFK-1, and pyruvate kinase. Give the activator and inhibitor of PFK-1
activator: F-2,6-bP, AMP
inhibitor: Citrate, ATP
Regulation of glycolysis is controlled primarily by three enzymes: hexokinase, PFK-1, and pyruvate kinase. Give the activator and inhibitor of Pyruvate kinase
activator: F-2,6-bP, AMP
inhibitor: Acetyl-CoA, ATP
In regards to the bisphosphoglycerate pathway in erythrocytes, bisphosphoglycerate mutase forms 2-3 BPG which binds to ___, decreasing its affinity for ___
In liver, kidney, and intestine, fructokinase phosphorylates fructose to fructose-1-phosphate. Diabetic patients can clear fructose because they are not affected by ____
Galctosemia is the result of a lack of what enzyme?