Flashcards in Omega-3 FAs Deck (19):
_____ gives rise to the "n-6 series" of PUFAs such as arachidonic
alpha-linolenic gives rise to the "n-3 series" PUFAs such as ___ and ____
____ acid gives rise to the "n-9 series" of FAs, such as nervonic (24:1, n-9)
Utlization of alpha-linolenic acid to synthesize EPA and DHA is ____ in humans
____ may be utilized by COX and lipoxygenase to form prostaglandins and thrombaxanes of the "3" series, and leukotrienes of the "5" series
DHA and EPA may be used to synthesize lipid mediators called resolvins and protectins. What do these compounds do?
resolve actue inflammation
note: appear to be important in brain
DHA is known to be important in the normal ___ and ___ development
In regards to dietary sources of essential FAs, where is Linoleic acid found?
In regards to dietary sources of essential FAs, where is alpha-linolenic acid found?
plant based oils (walnut, soy, canola)
In regards to dietary sources of essential FAs, where are EPA and DHA found?
fish (cold water, fatty, large fish)
note: synthesized by cold water plants and are concentrated in the fish
Decreased levels of n-3 PUFAs are associated with increased ____ ____ events
note: n-3 PUFAs consumption is good!
Anti-Arrhythmic is a reason by which n-3 PUFAs could decrease risk of cardiovascular disease. Explain the proposed mechanism.
modification of membrane phospholipids with the n-3 PUFAs, in turn, modifying the electrophysiology of the cardiac muscle
Decreases platelet aggregation is a reason by which n-3 PUFAs could decrease risk of cardiovascular disease. Explain the proposed mechanism.
1. EPA competes with arachidonic acid for cyclooxygenase
2. products from cyclooxyrgenase from EPA include PGI2 and TXA3
3. products from cycloxygenase from arachidonate include PGI2 and TXA2
4. PGI2 and PGI3 have approximately the same anti-platelet aggregatory activity, but TXA2 has a more potent platelet aggregator than TXA3
5. thus, EPA shifts balance to anti-platelet aggregation
In regards to dyslipidemia, taken at higher doses n-3 PUFA ethyl esters have been shown to reduce plasma ____
In regards to rheumatologic conditions, n-3 PUFA has anti-inflammatory activity. What is the mechanism?
decreased synthesis of arachidonate derived prostanoids, which are mediators of inflammation
In regards to hypertension, higher doses of n-3 PUFAs where shown to reduce blood pressure. What is the mechanism?
altered balance in production of vasoconstrictive prostaglandins and vasodilatory prostacyclin
In regards to vision development and disorders, a very high concentration of DHA is found in the ____
In regards to vision development and disorders, intake of n-3 PUFAs results in reduced risk of age-related ____ ____