Overview of Nutrition Flashcards Preview

Biochem > Overview of Nutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Overview of Nutrition Deck (33):
1

What are the 6 essential nutrients?

carbs
proteins
fats
water
vitamins
minerals

2

In regards to dietary intake studies, what would be used with diabetic patients?

24-hour recall

3

In regards to dietary intake studies, what would be used with adults and pediatrics to understand long term diet habits?

usual intake/diet history

4

How do you calculate BMI?

weight (kg) / height (m^2)

5

A BMI of 25-29.9 is considered what? Above 30?

overweight; obese

6

A waist circumference greater than ___ cm in men and ___ cm in women is an indication of increased risk for type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and CVD

102cm (40 in); 88cm (35 in)

7

For each time frame, give the associated percentage of significant and severe weight loss

1 week: significant = 1-2%, severe = >2%
1 month: significant = 5%, severe = >5%
3 months: significant = 7.5%, severe = > 7.5%
6 months: significant = 10%, severe = >10%
1 year: significant = 20%, severe = >20%

8

In regards to lab data, what would you look at if you were interested in protein status?

albumin, transferrin, prealbumin

9

In regards to lab data, AST, ALT, thiamine, folate, and B12 give you insight into what?

alcoholism

10

In regards to lab data, CBC, MCV, reticulocyte count, folate, serum B12 give you insight into what?

anemia

11

In regards to lab data, glucose, HbA1c, C-reactive protein give you insight into what?

diabetes

12

In regards to lab data, potassium, albumin, serum amylase, thyroid studies, AST, and ALT give you insight into what?

eating disorders

13

In regards to lab data, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, BUN, creatine give you insight into what?

fluid, electrolytes, and renal function

14

In regards to lab data, 25 OH vitamin D, calcium, phosphate, and PTH give you insight into what?

musculoskeletal pain/weakness

15

Define energy

kilocalories produced by the oxidation of dietary protein, fat, carbs, and alcohol

note: 1 dietary calorie (c) is equal to 1 kcal

16

1 kcal is equal to the amount of energy needed to raise 1kg of water ___ degrees

1

17

For each type of nutrient, give the associated kcal (calorie) amount per gram
protein
fat
carb
alcohol

protein: 4
fat: 9
carb: 4
alcohol: 7

18

The energy necessary to maintain basic functions at neutral environmental temperature and fasting is defined as

basal metabolic rate

19

The basal metabolic rate is proportionate to what two things?

lean body mass and surface area

20

The basal metabolic rate is ____ with fever/hyperthyroidism

higher

21

The basal metabolic rate is ____ with starvation/hypothyroidism

lower

22

The thermogenic effect is equivalent to about ___-___ % of total energy expenditure

10-15

23

This is the energy needed to maintain vital organ function in the resting state

Resting Energy expenditure

24

REE accounts for about ____ % of total energy expenditure

65

note: exercise can increase this

25

REE is an estimation for what?

basal metabolic rate

26

How do you estimate total energy expenditure?

multiplying REE by a factor which takes into account physical activity or clinical status

27

What are the useful average values for the Harris-Benedict equation which calculates calories needed for men and women?

men: 1.0 kcal/hr/kg
women: 0.95 kcal/hr/kg

28

This is the amount of a nutrient estimated to meet the nutrient requirement of half of the healthy individuals in a life-style and gender group

Estimated average requirement (EAR)

29

This is two standard deviations about the EAR - assuming that this dietary intake amount is sufficient for nearly all healthy individuals

recommended daily allowance (RDA)

30

In a patient's chart, use of vitamins, minerals, dietary supplements should be found where?

past medical history

31

BMI may not accurately reflect body fat in which individuals?

underweight patients

32

A medical student eats a lunch consisting of 10g of protein, 100g of carbs, and 5g of fat. How many calories has she ingested?

485

(10 x 4) + (100 x 4) + (5 x 9)

33

A 65 kg hospitalized burn patient (clinical factor of 2.0) is assessed nutritionally. What is the minimal number of calories she needs per day to avoid catabolism?

2964

0.95 (average for female) x 65 kg x 24 hrs per day x 2 (clinical factor)