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Flashcards in Hair and Nail Disorders Deck (28)
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1

nail infections caused by ANY fungus (vast majority caused by Trichophyton rubrum)

Onychomycosis (Tinea Unguium)

2

Most common location for Onychomycosis (Tinea Unguium)

distal subungual region

3

What should you consider screening for in patients who present with onychomycosis because it's a major risk factor for onychomycosis?

DM

4

How is onychomycosis usually diagnosed?

KOH examination of nail scrapings

5

Oral treatment of choice for onychomycosis

terbinafine (lamisil)

6

Duration of treatment of onychomycosis

fingernails: 1.5-3 months. toenails: 3-12 months

7

Medication class that cannot be used with terbinafine

statins

8

What needs to be monitored when treating with terbinafine?

LFTs

9

Infection around fingernail usually caused by S. aureus. Treated w/abx and warm soaks

paronychia

10

Pulp space infection of digit tip. Presents as swollen, tender, erythematous.

felon

11

Why does a felon require referral to hand surgeon in addition to I&D and abx?

edema due to felon can compromise arterial supply and lead to necrosis of the fingertip

12

Commonly seen in children and healthcare workers. Herpetic infection that usually affects one finger

herpetic Whitlow

13

Treatment for herpetic Whitlow

oral acyclovir for immunocompromised

14

Lateral nail plate pierces the lateral nail fold and enters the dermis. Presents w/edema, exudate, granulation tissue

onychocryptosis (ingrown nail)

15

Major risk factor for onychocryptosis (ingrown nail)

poorly fitting shoes

16

Treatment for mild to moderate ingrown toenail

Cotton wedging or dental floss underneath the lateral nail. Soak in warm water 20 minutes TID

17

Treatment for moderate to severe ingrown toenail

removal (partial nail avulsion)

18

Symmetrical hair loss that begins in the fronto-parietal scalp w/progressive recession

androgenic alopecia

19

Inhibits growth of scalp hair and stimulates growth of facial hair

Dihydrotestosterone (DHT)

20

Treatment for androgenic alopecia that blocks conversion of testosterone to DHT. Needs 6 months to be effective

Finasteride (Propecia)

21

Topical treatment for androgenic alopecia that works better in younger men who have been balding for less than 10yrs

Minoxidil (Rogaine)

22

Autoimmune process directed against hair follicle. Rapid hair loss in round/oval patches

alopecia areata

23

Best treatment for isolated patches of alopecia areata

intralesional steroids

24

Thinning/shedding of hair resulting from the early entry of hairs into the telogen phase due to stress, postpartum, malnutrition, crash dieting

telogen effluvium

25

Impulse control disorder unilateral to patient's dominant hand due to patient pulling hair out.

trichotillomania

26

Treatment for trichotillomania

SSRI and cognitive therapy

27

What must you educate your patient with onychomycosis about?

high rate of treatment failure

28

What autoimmune diseases is alopecia areata associated with?

Hashimoto's and pernicious anemia