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Flashcards in HDM Final Deck (148)
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1

Ag recognition by TCRs. Leads. To the receptors doing what?

Clustering (this leads to an activating cascade)

2

Signalling is mediated by what membrane bound proteins in the TCR?

CD3 and zeta chains (because they have the long cytoplasmic tails with the ITAMS or ITIMS)

3

what cell marker is used to count total T cells ?

CD3

4

When the TCR is engaged to activate the T cell what co-stimulatory signal must be present

CD80-CD28

5

You require 100 fold fewer TCRs to cluster for activation when what is present?

Co-sitmulation (CD80-C28)

6

What state do T cells enter if they recognize antigen presentation without costimulation?

Anergy (functional inactivation)

7

What cytokine produced by newly activated T cells functions to stimulate T cell proliferation (autocrine signalling)

IL-2

8

What cytokine is also called T. Cell growth factor

IL-2

9

What surface receptor is present on activated T cells but not naiive T cells

IL-2 Receptor

10

When T cells are restimulated for a second time by an APC they begin to secrete cytokines which commit the T cell to what ?

Th1 or Th2

11

What cytokines turn T cells into Th1

IFN gamma, TNF

12

What cytokines cause T cells to become Th2

IL4, 5, 10

13

What is T cell homing

Process of activated t cells going to tissue where the activating DC came from to fight the pathogen

14

Which cytokine is necessary for class switching to IgE

IL4

15

What cytokine is necessary to activate eosinophils

IL5

16

Th1. Cells produce which. Cytokines?

IFN gamma, IL2, TNF beta

17

Th2 Cells produce which. Cytokines?

IL4, 5, 10

18

This subset of Th cells activates macrophages, induces B cell production of opsonizing antibody

Th1

19

This subset of Th cells activates b cells to make neutralizing antibody (plus various effects on macrophages)

Th2

20

What controls the functional commitment of Th cells?

Tissue macrophages. And their products

21

Th1. Cells come to be when macrophages produce what cytokine????

IL12

22

Th2 Cells come to be when macrophages produce what cytokine????

IL4

23

What is the second costimulatory signal that is required for Th cells to activate macrophages and b cells?

CD40-CD40L

24

The binding of CD40-CD40L increases expression of what on the APC???

B7. And MHC

25

What are the main cells activated by Th1 cells?

INF-gamma activates macrophages and B cells (for Opsonization and phagocytosis)

26

What are the main cells activated by Th2 cells?

IL4 causes B cell to class switch to IgE which activates Mast cells
IL5 activates eosinophils

27

Although not necessary for activation of CD8 T cells, the binding of what will enhance APC's ability. To stimulate the. CTL???

Th1 cells bind to APC using CD40-CD40L

28

CTL granules are exocytosed when they find a target cell. What is in these granules?

Perforin and granzyme

29

What process is induced by the enzyme "granzyme" in target cells?

Apoptosis

30

What is the function of granzyme and. Perforin in CTL killing of target cells?

They enter the target cell by endocytosis

perforin- pokes holes in the vesicle membrane

Granzyme- enter cytoplasm through those holes and activate apoptotic pathway