MCM Lectures 19-22 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MCM Lectures 19-22 Deck (102)
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1

What is the apical most junction found between epithelial cells? This junction is maintained by what proteins?

Tight junction, occludins and claudins

2

Cell to cell junctions anchored by actin filaments

Adherens

3

Cell to cell junctions anchored by intermediate filaments

Desmosomes

4

Cell to matrix junctions anchored by intermediate filaments

Hemidesmosomes

5

Anchoring junction. That mediates cell to cell connections using actin

Cadherin

6

Anchoring junction. That mediates cell to matrix connections

Integrin

7

Classical cadherins and desmosomal cadherins are both examples of what kind of junction

Homophilic

8

Classical cadherin junctions require calcium to function while nonclassical cadherins do not. What are examples of nonclassical cadherins?

Desmoglein, desmocollin, hemidesmosome

9

Cells of similar type are able to stick together with highly selective regulation (especially important during development) thanks to a process dependent on what Homophilic cell adhesion molecules?

Cadherin

10

Anchoring protein that help link classical cadherins to the cytoskeleton (important in wnt pathways)

Beta-catenin

11

This structure is found just inferior to tight junctions between epithelial cells (adjacent to contractile actin)

Adhesion belt (zonula adheren)

12

hydrophilic medications are fast acting. what is an example of a hydrophilic medication?

epinephrine

13

the same hormone may elicit different responses in different tissue when bound to GPCRs. For examples, epinephrine causes what to happen in bronchial tissue, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle?

bronchial- relax
smooth muscle- relax
cardiac muscle- contract

14

these two beta agonists are used to treat airway constricting conditions

albuterol, epinephrine

15

fatal drop in blood pressure can occur with too much vasodilation which is why these two medications should not be taken together

viagra- cGMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor
nitroglycerine- smooth muscle relaxation/vasodilation

16

antihistimines bind GPCReceptors which normally bind what?

the AA histidine

17

what 4 regulatory proteins cause a differentiated adult cell to revert to pluripotency?

sox2, oct4, nanog, lin28

18

what is a stem cell?

self renewing, slow dividing, primitive cell that gives rise to more specialized cell types through differentiation

19

term for a cells ability to give rise to all cells of an organism including embryonic and extra embryonic tissues.

totipotency (zygote)

20

term for a cells ability to give rise to all cells of the embryo and thus all adult tissues

pluripotency (ES cells)

21

term for a cells ability to give rise to different cell types within a given lineage

multipotency (adult stem cells)

22

term for a set of cells that is programmed to have a fixed number of divisions controlled by short range signals

founder stem cells

23

cell population that is mixed with stem cells yet divides frequently to leave basal layer and become incorporated more superficially (divide a limited number of times)

transit amplifying cells

24

divisional asymmetry describes the process of stem cell division where one daughter cell retain stem cell characteristics while the other has the ability to differentiate. this describes which theory of stem cell renewal?

asymmetric division

25

environmental asymmetry describes the process of stem cell division where both daughter cells are identical and environment alters one so it has the ability to differentiate. this describes which theory of stem cell renewal?

independent choice

26

theory of stem cell division stating an original strand of DNA is preserved generation to generation (second cell gets newly synthesized DNA) to prevent errors

immortal strand hypothesis

27

pluripotent stem cells can be obtained from which part of an embryo at which stage in development?

inner cell mass of the blastocyst

28

what is a teratoma?

embryonic stem cells alone (when they are not part of an embryo) are incapable of generating a body in full. the lack of organization leads to tumor formation that involves many different tissue types involved.

29

whats required to differentiate a cultured ES cell into an adipocyte? a neuron?

fat- RA, insulin, thyroid hormone
neuron- RA

30

what are advantages / disadvantages to using multi potent stem cells to treat a patient?

no immune response to patients own tissue however they have limited ability (cannot become ANY cell type) and limited longevity