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Flashcards in HDM Midterm Deck (139):
1

Which type of immunity has no memory and responds the same way to every pathogen every time it infects? What are the main effector cells in this type of immunity?

Innate (natural)
Phagocytic cells, NK cells, Complement

2

Which type of immunity has memory and responds the faster upon subsequent infections? What are the main effector cells in this type of immunity?

Acquired (adaptive)
B cells, T cells

3

Which type of immunity is considered the first line of defense?

Innate

4

Rapid, causes inflammation, low specificity, no memory: these are all descriptive of which line of immunity?

Innate

5

Develops slowly, high specificity, memory: these are all descriptive of which line of immunity?

Adaptive

6

What are the components of inflammation?

Hot, red, swollen, pain, loss of function

7

Describe what happens when bacteria invades skin surface causing inflammation.

Surface wound, bacteria enters, resident cells secrete cytokines, vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, inflammatory cells leave blood entering tissue, tissue becomes inflamed

8

Skin, mucous membrane, temperature, acidic pH, and lactic acid are all examples of which component of the innate immune system?

Physical barriers

9

Which effector cell provides defense against helminths?

Eosinophil

10

What do immune cells look For to distinguish between Self and non self?

pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)

11

What are examples of some bacterial PAMPs?

LPS, techoic acid, peptidoglycan, mannose proteins

12

Which toll-like receptor activates inflammation in the presence of Gram positive bacteria

TLR2- recognizes peptidoglycan

13

Which toll-like receptor activates inflammation in the presence of gram negative bacteria

TLR4- recognizes LPS

14

TLR1:TLR2 is a heterodimer cell receptor found on monocytes, mast cells, DCs, eosinophils and basophils that recognizes what kind of PAMP?

Lipopeptides on bacteria, GPI on parasites

15

TLR2:TLR6 is a heterodimer found on monocytes, DCs, mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils that recognizes what PAMPs?

Lipotechoic acid (gram + bact) and yeast

16

Which TLRs are found intracellular in the endosomes?

3, 7, 8, 9

17

TLR3 on NK cells detects what kind of PAMP?

Double stranded viral RNA

18

TLR4 on macrophage, DC, mast cells, and eosinophils that detects what PAMPs?

LPS on gram - bacteria

19

TLR5 on intestinal epithelium recognize what PAMPs?

Flagellin (bacterial)

20

TLR7 on DCs, NK cells, eosinophils, B cells recognizes what PAMPs?

Single stranded viral RNA

21

TLR8 found on NK cells recognizes what kind of PAMPs?

Single stranded viral RNA

22

TLR9 on DCs, B cells, eosinophils, and basophils recognize what kind of PAMPs?

Unmethylated CpG-rich DNA

23

Which TLRs recognize Bacterial lipopeptides?

2, 6

24

Which TLRs recognize bacterial flagellin

5

25

Which TLRs recognize LPS

4

26

Which TLRs recognize peptidoglycan

2

27

Which TLRs recognize lipopeptides

1, 2

28

Which TLRs recognize dsRNA

3

29

Which TLRs recognize ssRNA

7, 8

30

Which TLRs recognize CpG DNA

9

31

Term for small proteins. Secreted. By. Cells to mediate inflammation, immunity and hematopoiesis

Cytokines

32

Small fragmetns of the complement serve what purpose

Opsonins, chemotactic factors, anaphylatoxins

33

Which complement cascade begins with Ag-Ab complexes?

Classic

34

Which complement cascade pathway begins with microbial carbs binding mannose binding protein?

Lectin

35

what is the difference between thick and thin skin? Where do you find thick skin?

keratin in the outer layer (thick skin only), no sweat glands or hair in thick skin, only thick skin has stratum lucidum
palms and soles of feet

36

these cells are more numerous in thick skin (stratum basal), they have free nerve endings, they come from neural crest cells and act as mechanoreceptors

merkel cells

37

how can you tell the difference between melanocyte and merkel cell? (both found in stratum basal)

merkel- larger cell with more well defined nucleus

38

loose connective tissue makes up the dermis. what are dermal projections called?

dermal papillae and epidermal ridges

39

the ___ has a rich blood supply whereas the ___ does not (layers of integument)

dermis, epidermis

40

what are dermatoglyphics?

fingerprints

41

what are the 2 layers of dermis

papillary and reticular layer

42

the dermis is rich in what

elastic fibers

43

which layer of the integumentary system contains capillary loops

dermis

44

these are found in the papillary layer of the dermis and their function is to act as encapsulated touch receptor

meissners corpuscles

45

where in the body do we find meissners corpuscles?

lips, finger tips, plantar feet, genitals

46

what type of tissue and fiber are found in the reticular dermal layer of skin?

dense irregular CT, collagen (type I) and some elastic

47

what provides thermoregulation in the dermis?

arteriovenous anastomoses

48

how can you distinguish between meissner and pacinian corpuscle?

meissners- in papillary layer
pacinian- in reticular layer and bigger

49

what component of the dermis is responsible for sensing stretch

ruff ini end organ

50

this nerve ending is wrapped around base of a hair follicle

peritrichial

51

although this structure buds from hypodermal layers, it is of epidermal origin

hair

52

this integumentary layer contains adipose tissue and subcutaneous fascia

hypodermis

53

what are the 3 components of hair shaft

cuticle, cortex, medulla

54

what muscles are responsible for giving us goose bumps?

arrector pili muscles (associated with the hair shaft)

55

what two layers surrounding a hair follicle are only present in the dermis and not in the portion of hair that sticks up out of the skin?

internal and external root sheath

56

what are the two types of glands associated with skin?

sweat and sebaceous

57

what type of exocrine secretion involves secretory product that remains entirely in the lumen of the gland before secretion?

merocrine

58

what type of exocrine secretion involves portions of secretory glands pinching off to release secretory products?

apocrine

59

what type of exocrine secretion involves entire cells including secretory product budding as new cells form

holocrine

60

sweat glands are all what shape? they are what type of secreting gland?

coiled, some are merocrine(eccrine) and some are apocrine

61

sebacious glands are what shape? What secretory mechanism do they use to release product?

branched alveolar, holocrine secretion

62

hair always includes what type of gland

sebacious

63

whats the most abundant type of sweat gland? what are the components of this watery secretory product?

eccrine (merocrine)

made of water, salt, ammonia, uric acid, mucinogen granules

64

where on the body do you find apocrine sweat glands?

axilla, pubic, anal, areola, external genitalia

65

what causes the odor associated with apocrine sweat gland secretion?

bacterial breakdown

66

what type of glands produce ceramic in the outer ear?

apocrine sweat glands

67

what type of gland is associated with eye lids and eye lashes

ciliary glands of Moll (apocrine sweat glands)

68

what is responsible for expelling secretions from glands?

myoepithelial cells

69

the secretory portion of a gland is surrounded by what type of tissue

simple cuboidal epithelium

70

the duct portion of a gland is surrounded by what type of tissue

stratefied cuboidal epithelium

71

describe finger and toe nails histologically

keratinized plates of cells on a bed of epidermis

72

nails are analogous to but much harder than what layer of the epidermis

stratum corneum

73

what is the term describing small white area near the proximal nail plate (beneath the nail matrix)

lunula

74

scientific term for cuticle

eponychium

75

fold of stratum corneum at the proximal end of the nail plate is called what? at the distal edge?

proximal- eponychium (cuticle)
distal- hyponychium

76

which type of sweat gland is most responsible for thermoregulation?

eccrine

77

macrophages and dendritic cells express what class of MHC molecules?

both I and II

78

B cells express what class of MHC molecules?

both I and I

79

erythrocytes express what class of MHC molecules?

none

80

which cells express class I MHC molecules?

all nucleated cells

81

what are the 2 primary lymphoid organs that produce cellular components of the immune system

bone marrow, thymus

82

what are secondary lymph organs?

where immune responses occur (lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils)

83

The thymus is a lymphoid organ possessed two lobes separated by a septa and a CT capsule. the medulla stains lighter and contains __ corpuscles

hassals

84

does the thymus contain lymphoid nodules? Germinal centers?

no and no

85

T cells mature in the thymus as they travel in what direction?

from cortex to medulla

86

other than T cells what immune cells are present in the thymus?

macrophages in both cortex and medulla
DC's in medulla

87

these cells are found in thymic medulla. they are tightly packed epithelial cell that signal for thymic DC's to complete T cell maturation

hassals corpuscles

88

epithelial reticular cells are bound to capillaries in the thymic cortex to protect developing T cells from what

circulating antigens (no direct blood supply to the medulla)

89

what is the job of a macrophage in the spleen

RBC breakdown

90

this organ traps antigens, serves as a platelet reservoir and completes hematopoiesis

spleen (no cortex or medulla)

91

is the spleen capsulated? if so what makes up the capsule?

yup, collagen, elastic fiber, smooth muscle

92

what divides the spleen into compartments?

trabeculae

93

reticular fibers make up the parenchyma of the spleen and support what two subunits

red and white pulp

94

this portion of spleen is rich in lymphoid tissue

white pulp

95

this portion of spleen is rich in RBCs

red pulp

96

list the components of white pulp of the spleen

germinal center, corona, central artery, periarteriolar lymphoid sheath

97

what is present in the corona of white pulp in the spleen

b cells and APCs

98

where are t cells found within white pulp of the spleen

periarteriolar lymphoid sheath

99

what are the components of red pulp in the spleen

splenic cord (reticular cells), splenic sinusoid, pennicillar arteries, macrophage sheathed cappilary, circulating blood cells

100

describe blood flow to / through the spleen

celiac trunk --> splenic artery--> trabecular aa.--> through trabeculae--> parenchyma of spleen--> central aa.--> penetrate white pulp (surrounded by periarteriolar lymph sheaths)--> radial aa.--> marginal zone sinuses

central--> red pulp via penicillar arteries--> splenic sinusoids (closed) OR into red pulp (open)

101

penicillar aa. are surrounded by what

macrophages that remove damaged RBCs

102

what is the smallest lymphoid organ

lymph nodes

103

are lymph nodes encapsulated? do they contain trabecular?

yes and yes, they have cortex and medulla

104

term describing the spot where arteries and veins and efferent lymph vessels enter the lymph node

hilum

105

where in the lymph do T cells predominate? B cells?

inner cortex, outer cortex

106

lymphatic nodules are present within this T cell rich region of a lymph node

inner cortex

107

spaces within lymph node lined with endothelial cells surrounded by reticular cells and macrophages

medullary sinuses

108

medullary sinuses in lymph nodes are a mesh of reticular cells and fibers that filter lymph and direct its flow. How are antigens removed from lymph in these spaces?

macrophages and follicular DCs

109

which lymphoid organ does not contain lymphoid nodules

thymus

110

which lymphoid organ(s) contain cords and sinuses

nodes and spleen

111

which lymphoid organ(s) contain cortex and medulla

thymus, nodes

112

which lymphoid organ(s) contain hassles corpuscles

thymus

113

which lymphoid organ(s) contain central arteries

spleen

114

which lymphoid organ(s) contain epithelial covering

tonsils

115

which lymphoid organ(s) contain cortical nodules with sub capsular sinuses

nodes

116

Who do APC's present antigens to?

T cells

117

Who presents Ag's to naive T cells?

DC's

118

HLA genes are highly pleomorphic and have what type of expression?

Codominant

119

MHC I molecules. Have a small grove. For binding protein fragments. What are the 3 human MHC I genes? What protein do each of these bind on the cell surface?

HLA-A
HLA-B
HLA-C
Beta-2 Microglobulin

120

What is the major barrier to transplants?

MHC I (because it is expressed on alllll of our cells)

121

Which segment of a MHC I molecule is recognized by the CD8 T cell during Ag presentation?

CDR (complementary determining region) of the TCR

122

MHC I. Molecules sample all of what within a. Cell?

Proteins being made (self or nonself that is the question)

123

What stabilizes the interaction between CD4 and MHCII?

CD4 recognizes conserved regions of MHCII

124

What sits in the groove of MHC II to keep peptides from binding here in the ER?

Invariant chain

125

What protein is required to remove CLIP from MHC II so that Ag peptide can bind here?

HLA-DM

126

What is the source of protein Ag for MHC I ? How about for MHC II ?

I- Cytosol
II- Endosomal/ lysosomal

127

What is responsible for peptide fragment generation for display by MHC I? II?

I- proteosome
II- phagolysosomal proteases

128

Where does MHC get loaded for class I? Class II?

I- ER
II- vesicular compartment

129

What proteins are required to get peptide fragments into the ER for presentation by MHC I?

TAP

130

Professional APCs can process what type of antigen for presentation via MHC I during cross presentation?

Exogenous

131

Antigens that can be cross presented always enter the cell via what mechanism?

endocytosis (MHC II pathway because they are exogenous proteins)

132

Cross presentation can be used by all professional APCs but it is mostly used by which type of cell?

DC's

133

Why must we. Use cross presentation?

Virally infected cells die and their debris must be picked up from the EXOGENOUS environment and then that cell must be killed via CD8 T cell killing so that the virus does not continue to spread

134

A surface Ig (IgM. Or IgD) together with what two peptides makes up the BCR

Ig alpha & Ig beta

135

TCR includes what two chains that are disulphide linked Extracellularly? What chains are present intracellularly?

Alpha and beta chains, intracellular= 2 zeta chains

136

The TCR complex includes an alpha subunit, a beta subunit, two zeta chains and what other molecule?

2 CD3 molecules

137

This subset of T cells is few in number (mostly found in epithelium) but is able to recognize PAMPS without an APC.

Gamma/ delta (no memory)

138

Rather. Than. In plasma, where are most plasma cells. Found?

Lymphoid organs

139

What costimulatory molecules are necessary in order to activate a T cell?

CD 80/86 (B7) which binds CD 28 on t cells