PCM Flashcards Preview

#MedSchool > PCM > Flashcards

Flashcards in PCM Deck (85):
1

gait cycle: average step length

14-16 inch

2

gait cycle: average cadence

90-120 steps/ min (higher by 6 in women)

3

gait cycle: average speed

3 mph

4

gait cycle: definition

from heel strike to heel strike of the same foot

5

gait cycle: 2 phases

stance and swing

6

gait cycle: positions

heel strike --> foot flat --> heel off --> toe off -->heel strike

7

gait cycle: "swing" phase occurs in between which foot positions

toe off to heel strike

8

gait cycle: "propulsion" is made of which 2 foot positions

heel off and toe off

9

whats the name for the foot joint connecting the 5 metatarsals to the distal most tarsal bones

lisfranc joint

10

whats the name for the foot joint connecting hind foot (calcareous and talus) to mid foot structures (cuneiforms, cuboid, and navicular)

midtarsal (chopart) joint

11

mm responsible for lowering foot to ground for "contact" phase of gait cycle

extensor digitorum longus, tibialis anterior

12

what must the tibia do after heel strike in order for calcaneus to evert and talus to drop (which unlocks mid tarsal joints for shock absorption)

internally rotate

13

during mid stance, the body's center of gravity shifts where

from behind to over the foot

14

as the body passes over mid-foot, it places ankle in maximal dorsiflexion. this puts maximal preload on what mm

gastroc-soleus complex

15

whats the term for the effect that occurs when 1st metatarsophalangeal joint extends resulting in plantar fascia that elevates the arch and further assists in foot supination

windlass effect

16

most problems with gait cycle occur during which phase

stance phase

17

which part of gait cycle is also called initial contact

heel strike

18

which part of gait cycle is also called loading response

foot flat

19

which part of gait cycle is also called terminal stance

heel off

20

which part of gait cycle is also called pre swing

toe off (50-60% of the stance cycle is spent here)

21

when the left foot is in mid stance where is the right foot

mid swing

22

when the left foot is in initial contact where is the right foot

terminal stance

23

which gait cycle phase provides limb and trunk stability

mid stance

24

which gait cycle phase provides weight release from stationary foot

pre swing

25

we have single limb support for how much of our gait cycle

80%

26

how much does your center of gravity move in a superior/ inferior motion during gait cycle

less than 2 in

27

how does our center of gravity shift superior/ inferior during gait cycle

early stance: weight transferred to foot. the hip on the non weight bearing side drops 2 in

28

how do we "lengthen" the femur during gait cycle

innominate (pelvis) rotates anterior 4 ish degrees

29

which gait disturbance: adopted limp to avoid pain on weight bearing structures, short stance phase on affected side

antalgic gait

30

which gait disturbance: stiffness in affected joints, plantar flex opposite to affected side to increase clearance, affected leg is circumducted, step is shorter

arthrogenic gait

31

which gait disturbance: unsteady, uncoordinated walk, broad base of support needed, loss of sensation/ control, staggering, watches feet when walking

ataxic gait

32

which gait disturbance: leg stiff, no flexion of knee and ankle, form a semicircle with rotation on each step

hemiplegic gait

33

which gait disturbance: full foot drop, hip raised high to clear toe, quiet gait usually

steppage (foot drop, high step, neuropathic) gait

34

which gait disturbance: small shuffling steps, hypokinesia (slowness of movement), reduced stride length and walking speed while cadence rate is increased

parkinsonian (festinating) gait

35

What are some causes of antalgic gait

Trauma, osteoarthritis, pelvic girdle pain, coxalgia, tarsal tunnel syndrome

36

What are some causes of arthrogenic gait

Osteoarthritis of hip/ knee, Post orthopedic surgery

37

What are some causes of ataxic gait

Vestibular, cerebellar hemmorrhage, friedreich's ataxia, pontine cerebellar atrophy, chronic mercury poisoning, posterior fossa tumor, alcoholism, drugs

38

What are some causes of stoppage gait

Peroneal nerve injury (lumbar disc herneation, MS, Giuliani barre, parkinsons)

39

Abnormal depression of the chest

Pectus excavatum

40

Abnormal expansion of the chest (pigeon chest)

Pectus carinatum

41

Curvature of cervical spine

Lordosis

42

Curvature of thoracic spine

Kyphosis

43

Curvature of lumbar spine

Lordosis

44

Curvature of sacral spine

Kyphosis

45

What does the acronym NURSE stand for

Name, understand, respect, support, explore

46

What does. CAGE stand for and when do we use it

Men. >14 drinks per week. Or 4 per day
Women >>>7. Drinks per week or 3 per day

47

What are the 5. Ps of sexual questioning

Partners
Prevention
Protection
Practices
Past history of STDs

48

What does SAFE stand for

Safety, abused, friends/ family, emergency plan

For domestic violence

49

Another name for fibrous joint

Synarthrosis

50

Another name for cartilagenous joints

Amphiarthrosis

51

Another name for synovial joints

Diarthrosis

52

3 fibrous joints

Cranial sutures, syndesmosis (tibiofibular), gomphosis

53

2 kinds of cartilaginous joints

Hyaline- synchondrosis (costochondral/ epiphyseal plate)
Fibrocartilage- symphyses (intervertebral disc)

54

What covers the ends. Of bones that are involved in synovial. Joints to reduce friction

Hyaline cartilage

55

Articular (hyaline) cartilage at synovial joints does not have blood or nerve supply so how does it get nourishment?

Synovial fluid

56

Whats hiltons law

Nerves supplying a joint also supply the muscles moving the joint and skin covering it

57

What is wolfs law

Bone is increased or reabsorbed wherever needed

58

Complete loss of articular cartilage, thickening of subchondral bone

Eburnation

59

Fragments of cartilage or bone floating free in synovial fluid (often in degenerative joint disease)

Joint mice (osteochondromatosis)

60

What type of arthritis is not inflammatory

Osteoarthritis is erosion of cartilage that buffers the bones

61

Whats in the central compartment of the hip

Labrum, ligamentum teres, articular surface

62

What tests. Can be performed to assess central compartment. Of hip

Log roll, c sign, Labral load, labral distract, Scour, apprehension, faber

63

What is in the peripheral compartment of the hip

Femoral neck, synovial lining

64

What tests can assess the peripheral compartment of hip

Log roll, Ely's, rectus femoris

65

What is in the lateral compartment of hip

Glut min, piriformis, IT band, trochanteric bursae

66

What is in the anterior compartment fo hip

Iliopsoas insertion, iliopsoas bursae

67

Name the test: you ask a patient to stand with all weight on the affected leg and watch for the opposite hip to drop

Trendelenburg sign

68

DTR for. The knee tests what spinal nerve segment

L4

69

What gets injured in the unhappy triad fo the knee

ACL, MCL, medial meniscus

70

DTR of achilles tendon is checking nerve function at what spinal segment

S1

71

What spinal nerve segments are tested by biceps. Brachii DTR

C5

72

What spinal nerve segments are tested by brachii radialis DTR

C6

73

What spinal nerve segments are tested by triceps DTR

C7

74

Shoulder. Muscles that do flexion

Anterior deltoid, coracobrachialis

75

Shoulder muscles that do extension

Latissimus dorsi, teres major

76

When carrying angle is reduced

Cubitus varus

77

When carrying angle is increased

Cubitus valgus

78

Varus stress test of elbow looking at what joint structure

LCL: radial collateral ligament

79

Valgus stress test of elbow looking at what joint structure

MCL: ulnar collateral ligament

80

Radial head subluxation due to tear of the ___ is nursemaids elbow

Annular ligament

81

What elbow motion is coupled with pronation

Ulnar abduction and posterior radial head glide

82

What elbow motion is coupled with supination

Ulnar adduction, radial head anterior glide

83

How does colles fracture present

(Distal radius fracture)

Dorsal and radial displacement of wrist/ hand

84

Dequervain syndrome will give what positive test

Finkelstein

85

How can you test for carpal tunnel syndrome

Phalens, tinnel, ok sign