Flashcards in Hematology Deck (97)
Neutrophilic Chemotactic Agents
C5a, IL-8, LTB4, kallikrein, platelet-activating factor
What binds CD14 on macrophage?
Lipid A from bacterial LPS --> septic shock
What prevents mast cell degranulation?
Primary target of HIV?
Which Ig crosses placenta?
ABO Hemolytic Disease of Newborn
Type O mom --> anti-A and anti-B IgG cross placenta --> mild jaundice in neonates that are type A, B, or AB
What do Weibel-Palade bodies produce?
- Activates vWF to bind GpIb
- Failure of agglutination with ristocetin assay = vWF disease and Bernard-Soulier Syndrome
Acatnthocytes = "spur cells"
Liver disease, abatelipoproteinemia (cholesterol dysregulation)
Echinocyte = "burr cell"
Renal/liver DZ, pyruvate kinase deficiency
Sideroblastic anemia - increased Fe in mt
Schistocyte = "helmet cell"
Spherocyte (no central pallor)
Hereditary spherocytosis (spectrin, ankyrin)
Drug- and infection-induced hemolytic anemia
Target Cell (decreased cytoplasm or increased membrane)
G6PD Deficiency (Hb precipitation)
Functional hyposplenia or asplenia
Plummer Vinson Syndrome
Fe deficient anemia + esophageal webs + dysphagia
- and atrophic glossitis (beefy red tongue)
Labs in Fe deficient anemia?
Increased TIBC (transport)
Decreased ferritin (decreased Fe stores)
Alpha Thalassemia Mutation
- Alpha-globin gene deletion --> decreased alpha-globin synthesis
- Cis: both deletions on same Chr (Asian)
- Trans: deletions occur on separate Chr (African)
- 4 allele deletion = no alpha-globin --> excess gamma-globin forms gamma4 = Hb Barts
-3 allele deletion = very little alpha-globin --> excess beta-globin forms beta4 (HbH)
- Point mutation in splice site and promotor sequence --> defective mRNA --> beta-globin synthesis decreased
How is beta-thalassemia minor confirmed?
Increased HbA2 on electrophoresis
What does peripheral smear look like of beta-thalassemia major?
Microcytic, hypochromic anemia
Rx for beta-thalassemia major?
Blood transfusion --> risk of secondary hemochromatosis
Presentation of beta-thalassemia major?
"Crew cut" on skull x-ray
Extramedullary hematopoeisis --> hepatosplenomegaly
Electrophoresis of beta-thalassemia major?
Increased HbF (alpha2gamma2)
What are beta-thalassemia major patients at increased risk for?
Parvovirus-B19 induced aplastic crisis