Hematology Flashcards Preview

Step 1 > Hematology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hematology Deck (97)
Loading flashcards...
1

Neutrophilic Chemotactic Agents

C5a, IL-8, LTB4, kallikrein, platelet-activating factor

2

What binds CD14 on macrophage?

Lipid A from bacterial LPS --> septic shock

3

Basophilia

CML

4

What prevents mast cell degranulation?

Cromalyn sodium

5

Primary target of HIV?

CD4+

6

Which Ig crosses placenta?

IgG

7

ABO Hemolytic Disease of Newborn

Type O mom --> anti-A and anti-B IgG cross placenta --> mild jaundice in neonates that are type A, B, or AB

8

What do Weibel-Palade bodies produce?

P-selectin
vWF

9

Ristocetin?

- Activates vWF to bind GpIb
- Failure of agglutination with ristocetin assay = vWF disease and Bernard-Soulier Syndrome

10

Acatnthocytes = "spur cells"

Liver disease, abatelipoproteinemia (cholesterol dysregulation)

11

Basophilic stippling

Lead poisoning

12

"Bite cell"

G6PD Deficiency

13

Echinocyte = "burr cell"

Renal/liver DZ, pyruvate kinase deficiency

14

Ringed Sideroblast

Sideroblastic anemia - increased Fe in mt

15

Schistocyte = "helmet cell"

DIC
TTP/HUS
HELLP
Mechanical hemolysis

16

Spherocyte (no central pallor)

Hereditary spherocytosis (spectrin, ankyrin)
Drug- and infection-induced hemolytic anemia

17

Target Cell (decreased cytoplasm or increased membrane)

HbC Disease
Asplenia
Liver DZ
Thalssemia

18

Heinz Bodies

G6PD Deficiency (Hb precipitation)

19

Howell-Jolly Bodies

Functional hyposplenia or asplenia

20

Plummer Vinson Syndrome

Fe deficient anemia + esophageal webs + dysphagia
- and atrophic glossitis (beefy red tongue)

21

Labs in Fe deficient anemia?

Decreased iron
Increased TIBC (transport)
Decreased ferritin (decreased Fe stores)

22

Alpha Thalassemia Mutation

- Alpha-globin gene deletion --> decreased alpha-globin synthesis
- Cis: both deletions on same Chr (Asian)
- Trans: deletions occur on separate Chr (African)
- 4 allele deletion = no alpha-globin --> excess gamma-globin forms gamma4 = Hb Barts
-3 allele deletion = very little alpha-globin --> excess beta-globin forms beta4 (HbH)

23

Beta-Thalassemia Mutation

- Point mutation in splice site and promotor sequence --> defective mRNA --> beta-globin synthesis decreased

24

How is beta-thalassemia minor confirmed?

Increased HbA2 on electrophoresis

25

What does peripheral smear look like of beta-thalassemia major?

Microcytic, hypochromic anemia
Target cells
Anisopoikilocytosis

26

Rx for beta-thalassemia major?

Blood transfusion --> risk of secondary hemochromatosis

27

Presentation of beta-thalassemia major?

"Crew cut" on skull x-ray
"Chipmunk" facies
Extramedullary hematopoeisis --> hepatosplenomegaly

28

Electrophoresis of beta-thalassemia major?

Increased HbF (alpha2gamma2)

29

What are beta-thalassemia major patients at increased risk for?

Parvovirus-B19 induced aplastic crisis

30

Lead poisoning enzymes
- Microcytic anemia

Ferrochelatase and ALA dehydratase