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Flashcards in Repro Deck (96)
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1

Sonic hedgehog gene

- Produced at base of limbs
- Anteroposterior axis and CNS development
- Mutation --> holoprosencephaly

2

Wnt-7 gene

- Produced at apical ectodermal ridge (distal limb)
- Dorsal-ventral exis

3

FGF gene

- Produced at apical ectodermal ridge
- Lengthening of limbs

4

Homeobox genes

- Code for TF
- Mutation --> appendages in wrong locations

5

ACEi during pregnancy

Renal damage

6

Alkylating agent during pregnancy

Absence of digits, multiple probs

7

Aminoglycosides

Ototoxicity

8

Antiepileptic drugs (Valproate, carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital)

Neural tube defects (high dose folate supplementation), cardiac defects, cleft palate, skeletal abnormalities

9

DES

Vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma, congenital Mullerian anomalies

10

Folate antagonists (trimethoprim, methotrexate, antiepileptics)

Neural tube defects

11

Isotretinoin

Multiple severe birth defects
Conception mandatory

12

Lithium

EBSTEIN ANOMALY - apical displacement of tricuspid valve (decreased volume of RV, atrialization of RV)

13

Methimazole

Aplasia cutis congenita

14

Tetracyclines

Discolored teeth, inhibited bone growth

15

Thalidomide

Limb defects ("flipper" limbs)

16

Warfarin

Bone deformities, fetal hemorrahge, abortion, ophthalmologic abnormalities
- USE HEPARIN IN PREGNANCY

17

Alcohol in pregnancy

FAS - intellectual disability, pre- and postnatal development retardation, microcephaly, smooth philtrum, thin upper lip, small palepbral fissures, limb dislocation, heart defects, heart-lung fistulas, holoprosencephaly
- Failure of cell migration

18

Cocaine in pregnancy

Low birth weight, preterm birth, IUGR, placental abruption
- Causes vasoconstriction

19

Smoking in pregnancy

Low birth weight, preterm labor, placental problem, IUGR, SIDS
- Nicotine --> vasoconstriction
- CO --> impaired O2 delivery

20

Iodine (lack or excess) in pregnancy

Congenital goiter/hypothyroidism (cretinism)

21

Maternal Diabetes

- Caudal regression syndrome (anal atresia, sirenomelia), congenital heart defects, neural tube defects, macrosomia

22

Methylmercury (from swordfish, shark, tilefish, king mackerel) in pregnancy

Neurotoxicity

23

Vitamin A excess in pregnancy

Spontaneous abortions, birth defects (cleft palate, cardiac probs)

24

X-rays in pregnancy

Microcephaly, intellectual disability

25

Urachus

- Fetal bladder --> umbilicus
- Patent urachus --> urine discharge from umbilicus
- Urachal cyst, vesicourachal diverticulum

26

Vitelline Duct

Yolk sac --> midgut lumen
Vitelline fistula --> meconium discharge from umbilicus
- Meckel diverticulum

27

Cleft Lip

Failure of fusion of maxillary and medial nasal processes

28

Cleft Palate

Failure of fusion of two lateral palatine shelves or failure of fusion of lateral palatine shelves with nasal septum and/or medial palatine shelf

29

Mullerian Agenesis (Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser Syndrome)

Primary amenorrhea (lack of uterine development) in females with fully developed secondary sexual characteristics (functional ovaries)
- Paramesonephric duct prob

30

Gartner Duct

Remnant of mesonephric duct in females