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1

Labs on neural tube defects?

Increased AFP
Increased AChE

2

What maternal disease is anencephaly associated with?

Maternal type 1 diabetes

3

What mutation is holoprosencephaly associated with?

Sonic headgehog

4

What conditions is holoprosencephaly associatd with?

Patau syndrome
FAS

5

How does syringomyelia present?

"Cape-like" bilateral loss of pain and temp sensation in UE (C8-T1)
- Ciari I malformation

6

Neuron staining?

Nissl (RER) - only in dendrites

7

Astrocyte staining?

GFAP

8

Where is Ach produced?

Basal nucleus of Meynert (degernation in Alzheimers)

9

Where is DA produced?

Ventral tegmentum
SNpc

10

Where is GABA prodcued?

Nucleus accumbens
- Made from glutamate and vit B6

11

Where is NE produced?

Locus ceruleus

12

Where is serotonin produced?

Raphe nucleus

13

Function of supraoptic nucleus of hypothalamus?

Makes ADH

14

Function of paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus?

Makes oxytocin

15

Function of lateral area of hypothalamus?

Hunger
- Damage --> anorexia
- Stimulated by: ghrelin
- Inhibited by: leptin

16

Function of ventromedial area of hypothalamus?

- Satiety
- Damage (craniopharyngioma) --> hyperphagia
- Stimulated by: leptin

17

Function of anterior hypothalamus?

- Cooling (PS)

18

Function of posterior hypothalamus?

- Heating (S)

19

Function of suprachiasmatic nucleus?

- Circadian rhythm
- SCN releases NE --> pineal gland --> melatonin

20

Extraocular movements during REM due to?

PPRF

21

Treatment for bedwedding?

Oral desmopressin (1st line)
Imipramine (TCA) 2nd line

22

Treatment for night terrors and sleepwalking?

Benzos

23

Function of VPL of thalamus?

Sensory from body

24

Funciton of VML of thalamus?

Sensory from face

25

Function of lateral geniculate nucleus of thalamus?

Vision

26

Function of medial geniculate nucleus of thalamus?

Hearing

27

Function of ventral lateral nucleus of thalamus?

Motor

28

Mesocortical DA Pathway

Negative sx

29

Mesolimbic DA pathway

Positive sx
- Antipsychotics

30

Nigrostriatal DA pathway

EPS
- Movement disorders, antipsychotic drugs