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Flashcards in Heme/Onc Deck (56):
1

t(9;22)

philadelphia chromosome

chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

BCR-ABL fusion protein

2

Burkitt Lymphoma

t(8;14) t(8;22) t(8;2)

movement of myc protooncogene from chromsome 8 to regions near Ig promoter sites on chromosomes 14, 22, or 2

3

t(14;18)

non-Hodgkin folliculate small cleaved cell lymphoma

bcl-2 protooncogene is sent from Chr 18 to Ig heavy chain promoted on chr 14

4

inv(16)

M4Eo (eosinophilic) subtype of AML

5

t(15;17)

acute promyelocytic leukemia

hemorrhage 2/2 intravascular coagulation and increased fibrinolysis

6

bcr-abl

t(9;22)

philadelphia chromosome

7

myc

on chromosome 8
t(8;22) t(8;2) t(8;14)

8

bcl-2

t(14;18)

9

Germinoma
- most common location or brain germinoma?
- classic sxs

- pineal region
- precocious puberty, Parinaud syndrome, obtructive hydrocephalus

(Parinaud = paralysis of upward gaze - dorsal midbrain syndrome)

10

pilocytic astrocytoma
- microscopically
- cells are mixed with?
- affects where

- spindle-cells w/hair-like glial processes a/w microcysts
- Rosenthal fibers and granular eosiniophilic bodies
- cerebellum, brainstem, hypothalamus, optic

11

rate limiting enzyme of heme synthesis

delta-ALA synthase (glycine and succinyl-coa into delta-ALA)

12

lead affects what enzymes

- what accumulates
- sxs

Ferrochelatase
ALA dehydratase

- protoporphyrin and delta-ALA
- microcytic anemia, MR, h/a, demyelination

13

Acute intermittent porphyria
- what enzymes affected
- what accumulates
- sxs
- tx
- why does that work

- porphobilinogen (PBG) deaminase
- porphobillinogen (PBG), delta-ALA
- 5 P's: Painful abd, Port wine urine, Polyneuropathy, Psycho distrubances, Precipitated by drugs etc
- glucose and heme
- inhibits ALA synthase

14

Porphyria cutanea tarda
- what enzyme affected
- what accumulates

- uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase
- uroporphyrin

15

what's most common porphyria

porphyria cutanea tarda

16

heme and ALA synthase relationship

decrease heme --> increase ALA synthase
increase heme --> decrease ALA synthase

17

squamous cell carcinoma pathology (3)

1. polygonal cells
2. eosinophilic cytoplasm
3. keratin-pearls

18

bronchioloalveolar carcinoma pathology (3)

effect on underlying lung archicutre

1. tall, columnar cells
2. spread along alveolar septae
3. papilalry projections into alveolar spaces

underlying architecutre typically preserved

19

papillary thyroid carcinoma pathology (3)

1. branching papillae
2. fibrovascular stalk covered by neoplastic cuboidal cells
3. ground glass nuclei

20

small cell lung carcinoma pathology (4)

1. undifferentiated oat cell
2. centrally located
3. from primitive cells of basal layer of bronchial epithelium
4. round or oval cells w/scant cytoplasm and large hyperchromatic nuclei
- resemble lymphocytes but smaller

21

BCR-ABL in what d/o

CML

22

tx for CML

gleevec = Imatinib

23

c-myc is what d/o

Burkitt lymphoma

24

APC
- what chromosome
- what function
- role in cancer

- chromosome 5
- cell growth and adhesion
- APC mutation is first step in adenoma-carcinoma sequence

25

APC found in what sorts of cancers

most sporadic colon cancer
all familial polyposis syndromes

26

DCC = ?

deleted in colon cancer

27

DCC role in cancer

final step of progression of large adenomatous polyps into adenocarcinoma

28

k-ras in colon cancer

it's an onco-gene that is responsible for size increases in adenomatous polyps

29

p53 in colon cancer

triggers final step of the adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence

30

MSH-2
- what is it
- involvement in cancer

DNA mismatch repair gene
HNPCC or Lynch syndrome

31

M-0 AML
- differentiation
- description

minimally differentiated
very immature, few or no Auer rods

32

M1 AML
1. differentiation
2. description

1. AML w/out differentiation
2. very immature, few or no Auer rods

33

M2 AML
1. differnetiation
2. description

1. AML w/maturation
2. + auer rods; + peroxidase

t(8;21)

34

M3 AML
1. differentiation
2. description

1. Acute promyelocytic leuekmia
2. lots of Auer rods; + peroxidase

t(15;17)

young pts and DIC is common

35

M4 AML
1. differentiation
2. description

PX?

1. Acute myelocytic leukemia
2. monoblasts and promonocytes
- negative peroxidase
+ nonspecitic esterase


poor Px

36

M5 AML
1. differentiation
2. description

1. acute monocytic leukemia
2. monoblasts and promonocytes
- negative peroxidase
+ nonspecific esterase

37

M6 AML
1. differentiation
2. description

1. Acute erythroleukemia
2. + PAS staining erythroblasts

38

M7 AML
1. differentiation
2. description

1. acute megakaryocytic leukemia
2. + platelet peroxidase
rare and poor Px

39

Mantle cell lymphoma
- mutation
- what cell

t(11;14)
B cell malignancy

40

t(11;14)
- what malignancy
- what does it code for

- Mantle cell lymphoma
- cyclin D activation

41

del 13q sen in what

CLL

42

HbS mutation

2 normal alpha chains
2 mutated beta chains
D for V at 6 position

43

HbC mutation

D for K --> mild chronic hemolytic anemia

44

what is JAK2

tyr kinase mediated receptor -- STAT

45

disorders with JAK2 mutation (3)

1. essential thrombocytosis
2. polycythemia vera
3. primary myelofibrosis

46

diagnostic features of polycythemia vera (6)

1. pruritus
2. erythromelalgia
3. splenomegaly
4. thrombotic complications
5. erythrocytosis
6. trhombocytosis

47

diagnostic features of primary myelofibrosis (5)

1. severe fatiuge
2. splenomegaly to the point of causing early satiety
3. hepatomegaly
4. anemia
5. BM fibrosis

48

CML leukocytosis what shift

left shift (more myelocytes, metamyelocyte,s band forms)

49

IL-1
- what is it
- what malignancy secretes it

osteoclast activating factor
multiple myeloma

50

IL-6
- what is it
- what malignancy secretes it

a factor secreted by multiple myeloma cells that leads to bone resoprtion

51

what causes the fatigue, confusion, and constipation in MM pts

hypercalcemia from bone resroption

52

hypercoagulability seen commonly in what cancers

adenoCA of pancreas, colon, lung

53

pathogenesis of hypercoagulability neoplastic syndrome

adnoeCA prodcues thromboplastin-like substance that can cause chronic intravascular coagulation

54

what is Trousseau's syndrome?

migratory superficial thrombophlebitis

55

what should you be wary about if you see Trousseau's syndrome?

visceral cancer

56

properties of anaplastic tumors (5)

1. loss of cell polarity, so disorganized in infiltrative fashion
2. variation in shape and size of cells (pleomorphism) and nuclei
3. disproportionately large nuclei w/abundant coarse chromatin and large nucleoli
4. numerous, often abnormal mitotic figures
5. giant multnucleated tumor cells