Pharmacology - Toxicities and Side Effects Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharmacology - Toxicities and Side Effects Deck (69):
1

Antidote for acetaminophen toxicity
How?

N-acetylcysteine (NAC)
Replenishes glutathione

2

Antidote for AchE inhibitor (organophosphate) toxicity
How?

Atropine + Pralidoxime

3

Antidote for Amphetamines toxicity
How?

Ammonium Chloride
Protonates amphetamines (basic) to allow renal excretion

4

Antidote for Antimuscarinic (anticholinergic) toxicity

Physostigmine salicylate, control hyperthermia

5

Antidote for Benzo toxicity

Flumazenil

6

Antidote for beta-blocker toxicity

Glucagon

7

Antidote for CO toxicity

100% O2 and hyperbaric O2

8

Antidote for Cu, As, Au toxicity

Penicillamine

9

Antidote for CN toxicity

Nitrite + thiosulfate, hydroxocobalamin
Amyl nitrite

10

Antidote for digitalis toxicity

anti-dig Fab fragments

11

Antidote for Heparin toxicity

Protamine sulfate

12

Antidote for Iron (Fe) toxicity

Deferoxamine, Deferaxirox

De-Fe's

13

Antidote for Lead (Pb) toxicity

- EDTA (chelator)
- Dimercaprol, Succimer (also for mercury toxicity)
- Penicillamine (also for Cu, As, Au toxicity)

14

Antidote for Mercury, ethylene glycol (antifreeze) toxicity

Di.mer.caprol (BAL), Succi.mer
EDTA

"Mer"

15

Antidote for Met.hemoglobin toxicity (when Hb has Fe3+ instead of 2+)

Methylene blue (reduces... but oxidizes at very high doses)
Vit C

16

Antidote for Opioids toxicity

Naloxone (short-term, emergency use)

17

Antidote for Salicylates toxicity

NaHCO3 and dialysis to alkalize urine and ionize salicylic acid for renal excretion

18

Antidote for TCAs toxicity

NaHCO3 for plasma alkalinzation

19

Antidote for tPA, streptokinase, urokinase toxicity

Aminocaproic acid

20

Antidote for warfarin toxicity

Vit K, FFP if currently bleeding

21

Drug reactions: Meds that cause vasospasm (3)

1. cocaine
2. ergot alkaloids
3. sumatriptan

"Can Elicit Spasms"

22

Drug reactions: Meds that cause cutaneous flushing (4)

1. Vanco
2. Adenosine
3. Niacin
4. CaCh blockers

"VANC"

23

Drug reactions: Meds that cause dilated CM (2)

1. doxorubicin
2. danunorubicin

D-rubicin drugs cause Dilated CM

24

Drug reactions: Meds that cause TdP (5)

1. Class III anti-arrhthmic (sotalol)
2. Class Ia anti-arryhthmic (quinidine)
3. Macrolides (mainly clarithromycin and erythromycin)
4. antipsychotics
5. TCAs

25

Drug reactions: Meds that cause adrenocortical insufficiency (1)

Sudden Glucocorticoid withdrawal leading to HPA suppression

26

Drug reactions: Meds that cause hot flashes (2)

1. Tamoxifen (SERM)
2. Clomiphene (SERM)

"Temperature Check"

27

Drug reactions: Meds that cause hyperglycemia (6)

1. Tacrolimus
2. Protease inhibitor
3. Niacin
4. HCTZ
5. Beta-blocker
6. Corticosteroids

"He Takes Pills, Needs Blood Checks"
""H

28

Drug reactions: Meds that cause Hypothyroidism (3)

1. Amiodarone
2. Lithium
3. Sulfonamides

"A Lot of Swimming" will make you cold, like in Hypothyroidism

29

Drug reactions: Meds that cause acute cholestatic hepatitis and jaundice (1)

Erythromycin

30

Drug reactions: Meds that cause diarrhea (5)

1. Metformin
2. Erythromycin
3. Colchicine
4. Orlistat (obesity drug to prevent absorption of fat, so osmotic diarrhea)
5. Acarbose (anti-Diabetes by causing carb locking in GI, so osmotic diarrhea)

"Oh, My Aching Excited Colon"

31

Drug reactions: Meds that cause focal to massive hepatic necrosis (4)

1. Halothane
2. Amanita phalloides (death cap mushroom)
3. Depakote Valproic acid
4. Acetaminophen

Hepatic Death AA!

32

Drug reactions: Meds that cause hepatitis (1)

INH

33

Drug reactions: Meds that cause pancreatitis (6)

1. Didanosine (reverse transcriptase inhibitor anti-retroviral)
2. Corticosteroids
3. Alcohol
4. Valproic Acid
5. Azathioprine (immunosuppresion via purine analog)
6. Diuretics (furosemide and HCTZ)

"Drugs Causing A Violent Abdominal Distress"

34

Drug reactions: Meds that cause pseudomembranous colitis (3)

1. Clindamycin
2. Ampicillin
3. Cephalosporin

b/c c. dif

35

Drug reactions: Meds that cause Agranulocytosis (6)

1. Dapsone (abx to treat leprosy)
2. Clozapine (atypical antipsychotic)
3. Carbamazepine (mood-stabilizer and anticonvulsant)
4. Colchicine
5. Methimazole (anti-thyroid drug)
6. Propylthiouracil (anti-thyroid drug)

"Drugs CCCrush Myeloblasts and Promyelocytes"

36

Drug reactions: Meds that cause Aplastic anemia (6)

1. Carbamazepine (mood-stabilizer and anticonvulsant)
2. Methimazole (anti-thyroid drug)
3. NSAIDs
4. Benzene
5. Chloramphenicol (abx used for meningitis [strep, neisseia, hflu])
6. Propylthiouracil (anti-thyroid drug)

"Cannot Make New Blood Cells Properly

37

Drug reactions: Meds that cause direct Coomb's poitive hemolytic anemia (2)

1. Methyldopa
2. PCN

38

Drug reactions: Meds that cause gray baby syndrome (1)

Chloramphenicol (abx for meningitis)

39

Drug reactions: Meds that cause hemolysis in G6PD def (7)

1. INH
2. Sulfonamides
3. Dapsone (abx for leprosy)
4. Primaquine (malaria drug of pneumocystis PNA)
5. ASA
6. Ibuprofen
7. Nitrofurantoin (abx for UTIs resistant to other abx)

Hemolysis "IS D PAIN"

40

Drug reactions: Meds that cause megaloblastic anemia (3)

1. Phenytoin
2. MTX
3. Sulfa drugs

have a Blast with PMS

41

Drug reactions: Meds that cause thrombocytopenia (2)

1. Heparin
2. Cimetidine (H2-rec antagonism)

42

Drug reactions: Meds that cause thrombotic complications

OCPs

43

Drug reactions: Meds that cause fat redistribution (2)

1. Protease inhibitors
2. GC's

"Fat PiG"

44

Drug reactions: Meds that cause gingival hyperplasia (4)

1. Phenytoin
2. Verapamil
3. Cyclosporine
4. Nifedipine

45

Drug reactions: Meds that cause hyperuricemia (gout) (5)

1. Pyrazinamide
2. Thiazide
3. Furosemide
4. Niacin
5. Cyclosporine

Painful Toes and Feet Need Care

46

Drug reactions: Meds that cause myopathy (8)

1. Fibrates
2. niacine
3. Colchicine
4. Hydroxychloroquine
5. IFN-alpha
6. Penicillamine
7. Statins
8. Glucocorticoids

47

Drug reactions: Meds that cause osteoporosis (2)

1. CS's
2. Heparin

48

Drug reactions: Meds that cause photosensitivity (4)

1. Sulfonamides
2. Amiodarone
3. Tetracycline
4. 5-FU

49

Drug reactions: Meds that cause Rash (stevens-Johnson) (8)

1. Ethosuximide
2. Carbamazepine
3. Lamotrigine
4. Phenytoin
5. Phenobarbitol
----- antiepileptics ---
6. Allopurinol
7. Sulfa drugs
8. PCN

50

Drug reactions: Meds that cause SLE-like syndrome

1. Sulfa drugs
2. Hydralazine (anti-HTN via activation of VG-KCh on vascular smooth muscle)
3. INH
4. Procainamide (Ia anti-arryhthmic)
5. Phenytoin
6. Etanercept (TNF inhibitor for inflammatory dz [RA, psoriatic arthritis, anklyosing spondylitis)

51

Drug reactions: Meds that cause teeth discoloration (1)

tetracycline

52

Drug reactions: Meds that cause tendonitis, tendon rupture, and cartilage damage (1)

fluroquinolones

53

Drug reactions: Meds that cause cinchonism (flushed and sweaty skin, tinnitus, blurred vision, hearing impairment, reversible high freq hearing loss, rashes, vertigo, n/v/d)

quinidine
quinine

54

Drug reactions: Meds that cause Parkinson-like syndrome (3)

1. antipsychotics
2. reserpine (blocker of Dopamine inserting into vesicles)
3. metoclopramide (dopamine-receptor antagonist for n/v)

55

Drug reactions: Meds that cause seizures (6)

1. INH (2/2 B6 [pyridoxine] deficiency)
2. Buproprion (antidepressnat/smoking cessation SSRI)
3. Imipenem/cilastatin (protects imipenem from degradation)
4. Tramadol (opioid analgesia)
5. Enflurane (halogenated ether for anesthesia)
6. Metoclopramide (D-Rec antagonist for n/v)

"I BITE M"y tongue w/seizures

56

Drug reactions: Meds that cause tardive dyskinesia (2)

1. Antipsychotics
2. Metoclopramide (dopamine receptor antagonist for n/v)

57

Drug reactions: Meds that cause diabetes insipidus (2)

1. Lithium (accumulates in collecting tubules and disrupts ADH function)
2. Demeclocycline (tetracycline derived from Streptomyces aureofaciens)

58

Drug reactions: Meds that cause Fanconi syndrome (1)

1. expired Tetracycline

59

Drug reactions: Meds that cause hemorrhagic cystitis (2)

1. Cyclophosphamide (alklyating agent for chemo and DMARD failure autoimmune disease)
2. Ifosfamide (alkylating agent for chemo)

60

Drug reactions: Meds that cause interstitial nephritis (2)

1. Methicillin (narrow spectrum PCN)
2. NSAIDs
3. Furosemide

61

Drug reactions: Meds that cause SIADH (3)

1. Carbamazepine (anti-convulsant, mood stabilizer)
2. Cyclophosphamide (alkylating agent)
3. SSRI's

"Can't Concentrate Serum Sodium "

62

Drug reactions: Meds that cause dry cough (1)

ACE-I

63

Drug reactions: Meds that cause pulmonary fibrosis (4)

1. Bleomycin
2. Amiodarone
3. Busulfan (alkylating antineoplastic agent - sulfonate)
4. MTX

"Breating Air Badly with Meds"

64

Drug reactions: Meds that cause multiorgan antimuscarinic syndrome (4)

1. Atropine
2. TCA
3. H1-blocker
4. Antipsychotic

65

Drug reactions: Meds that cause multiorgan disulfiram-like reaction (crappy with alcohol) (5)

1. Metronidazole
2. Some cephalosporins
3. Griseofulvin (anti-fungal)
4. Procarbazine (antineoplastic for Hodgkin's lymphoma)
5. 1st gen Sulfonylurea (antidiabetic by increasing insulin release from beta cells)

66

Drug reactions: Meds that cause multiorgan nephrotoxicity/ototoxicity (4)

1. Aminoglycosides
2. Vanco
3. Loop diuretics
4. Cisplatin

67

Arsenic poisoning
- presentation
- what does arsenic do

- GI: n/v/d/abd pain
- AMS
- tachy
- garlic breath

- arsenic binds to sulfhydryl groups of enzymes

68

how to treat arsenic poisoning

dimercaprol

69

lithium toxicity
- presentation (6)

- NMJ excitability
- Irregular coarse tremor
- fascicular twitching
- agitation
- ataxia
- delirium