Flashcards in Hi Rise Office Buildings Deck (71):
What is an access stair?
A stairway, usually open, serving a number of floors of a common tenant. Also known as convenience stairs.
When does a Hi-Rise need a Building evacuation supervisor?
When the fire safety director is not present in a class "E" office building occupied by less than 100 people above or below the street floor or by
less than 500 people in the entire building, an employee trained by the fire safety director will staff the fire command station and execute the
fire safety plan.
What is a Plenum?
An air compartment or chamber to which one or more ducts are connected and which form a part of an air distribution system. In high rise buildings, the space between the suspended ceiling and the under side of the floor above is used as a plenum for the collection of the return air.
Where is the forward staging area established?
An area established on a floor below the Fire Sector/Branch to provide logistical support to the Fire Sector/Branch.
2.2 Characteristic of CLASS "E" HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS BUILT BEFORE 1945:
2.2.1 The construction techniques used in these buildings resulted in a "heavy-weight" building, usually weighing about 20 to 23 pounds per cubic foot.
2.2.3 Structural steel components were encased in concrete.
2.2.4 Exterior walls were of masonry construction.
2.2.5 Exterior walls were substantially tied to all floors.
2.2.6 Plenum type ceilings are generally not found in these buildings.
2.2.7 Normally steam heated.
2.2.8 Usually not centrally air conditioned.
2.2.9 Exterior windows were openable.
2.2.10 All buildings erected between 1938 and 1968 were required to have a fire tower. Some built prior to 1938 have fire towers.
2.2.11 Floors were constructed of reinforced concrete.
2.2.12 Core construction techniques were not used.
2.3 Characteristic of CLASS "E" HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS BUILT BETWEEN 1945 AND 1968:
2.3.1 The construction techniques used resulted in a "medium-weight" building, usually weighing between 10 and 20 pounds per cubic foot.
2.3.2 Fire towers were required in all of these buildings.
2.3.3 The characteristics of these buildings are a mix of the pre 1945 buildings and the post 1968 buildings. These buildings were required to conform to the 1938 Building Code but because of the numerous variances granted, they used many of
the construction techniques of the post 1968 buildings.
2.4 Characteristics of CLASS "E" HIGH-RISE OFFICE BUILDINGS BUILT AFTER 1968:
2.4.1 The construction techniques used in these buildings resulted in a "lightweight" building, usually weighing about 8 to 10 pounds per cubic foot.
2.4.2 They were constructed with a lack of compartmentation.
2.4.3 The protection of the structural steel component is usually done by spraying on a
2.4.4 Exterior walls are curtain walls constructed of a combination of glass and metal.
2.4.5 The method of securing exterior curtain walls leaves a space of 6 to 12 inches which requires additional fire stopping.
2.4.6 The ceiling plenums of these buildings are extensive and lack fire stopping. They are used to return the air to the air-conditioning system and for electrical, communications and other building support equipment.
2.4.7 They are usually heated by the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning system (HVAC).
2.4.8 HVAC systems are usually multi-floor systems.
2.4.9 Exterior windows are usually not openable.
2.4.10 Fire towers are not required.
2.4.11 Floors are light in weight usually consisting of lightweight concrete, "Q decking,"etc.
2.4.12 Core construction techniques are used extensively.
Before any action can be taken with the HVAC System what needs do be determined?
3.3.2 Before any further action can be taken with the HVAC system, the fire floor must be accurately determined.
How do we place the HVAC systems into non-circulating mode?
3.3.3 All the HVAC systems shall be placed in the non-circulating mode by:
A. Opening all outside air supply dampers.
B. Closing all mixing dampers.
C. Opening all exhaust dampers.
After the fire floor has been determined all HVAC zones that do not include the fire area should be put into which mode and why?
3.3.4 After the fire floor has been adequately determined, all HVAC zones that do not
include the fire area shall have their supply fans activated. This will supply fresh outside air to these zones, pressurizing these zones and limiting the spread of smoke. It will also supply fresh outside air to any occupants on the floors in these zones.
Approximately how many degrees over normal operating temperatures will the fusible link close the fire dampers?
How do we reopen these dampers?
3.4.1 Fusible links should have a temperature rating approximately 50º F above the maximum
temperature that would normally be encountered with the system in operation or shut down.
A. Once a fire damper has closed it must be manually opened before air can pass though the opening it is protecting.
Any smoke or heat detection installed in the HVAC system when activated will cause what to happen?
A. Activation of any of the detectors installed in an HVAC system shall stop the air supply into and the air return from the affected floor. The air supply and the air return are stopped by the activation of an approved remote controlled reversible fire shutter or by automatically shutting down the air supply fans and the air return fans serving the floor where
B. The fans cannot be reactivated until the smoke detector has been cleared or the smoke detector relay has been electrically bypassed. This can be
difficult and time consuming.
Temperature variations that occur in the periphery of the building, due to weather changes and movement of the sun, require supplementary treatment of the air. Flexible connectors are used between the ducts and the periphery air treatment equipment on the floor above. What can happen when these flexible connections fail during fire conditions?
1. Fire experience has shown that fire entering the plenum can extend from one floor to another when these flexible connectors fail.
The 1968 Building code requires a manual fire pump to supplement the standpipe system in buildings over 300 feet high. The 1938 Building
Code requires a manual fire pump in buildings over 250 high. Who is primarily responsible of starting these pumps?
It always has been the responsibility of building engineers to start the building fire pumps and this section does not releases them from this
assignment. In the past, however, some engineers have been assigned to other duties when a fire starts. There is also the possibility that the
building engineer might not be on duty at the time of the fire.
When we locate the pump room what is the 1st thing we need locate and check before operating the pump?
The bypass valve.
A. Follow signs or directions to the pump room which is normally located on the lowest floor (cellar or sub-cellar).
B. Locate the pump and note the gauges on inlet and discharge lines.
C. Locate the bypass valve on the discharge side of the fire pump.
The discharge side can be readily identified by examining the gauges. The discharge gauge is calibrated for higher pressures than the inlet gauge.
D. The bypass valve should be in the closed position (stem in). Some engineers keep them open for test purposes, so they must be checked by
the ECC assigned to operate the pumps. If they are found to be open, they should be closed by turning in a clockwise direction.
E. Some systems are quite complex and the bypass valve is not readily discernible. If such a situation is present, it is permissible to start pump as ordered without checking bypass valve. Notify the engineer upon his/her arrival of this and any other actions taken.
The efficiency of the pump will be affected if the bypass is open. How much of a % loss should be expected in a:
A loss of 25% can be expected in an 8" riser and a loss of 45% can be expected in a 6" riser with the bypass open.
What is the four step procedure for starting of fire pumps using the control panel?
A. Close knife switch to on position.
B. Close circuit breaker(s) & power "on" light will glow
C. Push starting button & pump "on" light will glow.
D. Move selector lever (4) to desired position increasing pump speed and thereby increasing pressure.
4.1.5 The fire pumps should now be operating. If they have failed to start, the emergency power lever located at the panel shall be used. Push or pull to "on" position.
What are the additional duties of the member assigned the pump room?
4.1.6 Additional duties of the member assigned will include:
A. Contact be maintained with fire command station, via
1. Handie-talkies (or)
2. Fire Command station phone located in pump room.
B. Checking of the pressure gauge on the discharge side of the fire pump located near the riser. This is to ensure that the pressures called for are being maintained. The building management is encouraged to provide pump pressure chart. The chart they supply should be located at the control panel and may vary slightly depending upon efficiency of the pump.
Since most pumps are connected in __________ fashion it is necessary to have both pumps operate
____ or ______ the _____ pressures?
Since fire pumps are connected in parallel position, it is necessary to have both pumps operating at or near the same pressures. Should one manual
pump be operated at a pressure far in excess of the other, it could partially overcome the check valve making the second pump less efficient. A visual check should be made of the discharge gauges of both pumps. When both are operating correctly, the pressures should be equal or nearly so.
It is a good rule of thumb to have a separate engine supply the STDP system for?
The high pressures required to supply water to the upper floors of a high-rise building limit the amount of water that a Fire Department engine can supply.
A good “rule of thumb" is to have a separate engine supply the standpipe system for each handline in operation.
When do we give a 10-76 at a Hi Rise Office Bldg.?
When do we give a 2nd alarm at a Hi Rise Office Bldg.?
A. A 10-76 signal shall be transmitted when a report of fire is confirmed. Any fire in a high-rise office building which requires the stretching and operating of one hoseline will necessitate the use of "All Hands."
B. A second alarm is warranted for any visible fire or smoke emanating through the exterior skin of the building or when a serious fire has been verified.
What are the assignments of the 1st 5 Engine Companies at a 10-76?
1. The first and second arriving engine companies shall be teamed to stretch and operate the first line.
2. The third and fourth arriving engine companies shall be used to stretch and operate the second line.
3. The CFR engine company, with all CFR-D equipment and forcible entry tools, shall be assigned to the Fire Sector Supervisor/Branch Director.
What are the assignments of the 1st 5 Ladder Companies at a 10-76?
4. The first arriving ladder company shall be assigned to search and evacuate the fire floor.
5. The second arriving ladder company shall be assigned to augment the search and evacuation of the fire floor.
6. The third arriving ladder company shall be assigned to search and evacuate the floor above the fire.
7. The fourth arriving ladder company shall be assigned similarly, to operate on the upper floors and to initiate the search of the attack stairway.
8. The FAST unit shall be assigned to the Fire Sector Supervisor/Branch Director.
When does the attack stairway get searched for occupants during a Hi Rise fire?
3. The Fire Sector (fire floor and the floor above) are initially all that are required to be evacuated. However, occupants of many other floors may self-initiate evacuation, utilizing any or all stairways until instructed otherwise. This mandates that all stairways are searched, especially the attack stairway before and during fire operations.
What is the preferred stairway to be used for evacuation if available?
5.4.1 C 2.
A stairway shall be selected for evacuation of building occupants (evacuation stairway) preferably a fire tower if available.
What items need to be considered in making the decision of where to place the 2nd Line at a Hi Rise Office Bldg.?
A. Information received from operating units.
B. Number of stairways available to the fire area.
C. Type of construction:
1. Center-core construction.
2. Side-core construction.
3. Non-core construction.
D. Location of the stairway with regard to the core.
E. Has the first line been stretched to the most advantageous position for attacking fire.
F. Has search and evacuation of the fire floor been completed.
The Placement of the 2nd Line at a Hi Rise Office Fire may be used to? 4 answers
A. Reinforce the position of the first line.
B. Protect the position of the first line.
C. Protect the search and evacuation of the fire floor.
D. Contain and confine fire spread and/or prevent fire from wrapping around the core and endangering operation of the first line.
Any set-backs in the vicinity of the fire floor which may be used for what at a Hi Rise Office Bldg Fire?
B. Attack on the fire.
C. Search and evacuation.
All Horizontal Ventilation at a Hi Rise Office Bldg fire shall be controlled, communicated and coordinated by who?
Ventilation by the removal of windows on the fire floor or other floors is not an initial consideration. It should be delayed until an evaluation can be made of its effect on air movement in the fire area and throughout the building. Before ventilation by the removal of windows is undertaken, safety precautions have to be taken in the area that will be affected by falling glass shards. All horizontal ventilation tactics shall be controlled, communicated and coordinated by the IC.
The Fire Sector/Branch is initially defined as what floors?
Initially, the Fire Sector/Branch is defined as the fire floor and the floor above.
What is the location of the Fire Sector Chief at a Hi Rise Office Bldg and what equipment is needed?
A. The Fire Sector Supervisor or Fire Branch Director shall take a position on the first floor below the fire, where conditions permit.
B. The location of the Fire Sector or Branch Supervisor shall ensure reliable communications with the operating units and the ICP.
C. The Fire Sector or Branch shall be equipped with the following:
1. SCBA for all personnel required for the operations of this sector/branch.
2. Copy of the floor plan.
3. Fire Sector/Branch log.
4. Post Radio
In the ICS notes Leaders operate under?
5.5.4 ICS Note: Leaders operate under Supervisors. .
In the ICS notes Supervisors operate under?
5.5.4 ICS Note: Supervisors operate under Directors
The IC operates on what HT channel while his aide monitors what HT Channel?
6.2.1 B 3. The Incident Commander shall operate on the command channel. The aide shall operate on and monitor the primary tactical channel.
The Fire Sector Chief operates on what HT channel while his aide operates on what HT channel?
6.2.1 C 4. The Fire Sector Supervisor or Fire Branch Director shall operate on the primary tactical channel. His/her aide shall operate on the command channel.
The SAE Chief shall operate on what HT Channel while his aide will operat on what HT Channel?
6.2.1 D 3. The Search and Evacuation Group Supervisor shall operate on the secondary tactical channel. His/her aide shall monitor and operate on the command channel.
The forward staging area chief operates on what HT channel while his aide operates on what HT channel?
6.2.1 E 2. The Forward Staging Area Manager shall operate on the command channel. His/her aide shall monitor the primary tactical channel.
What are the responsibilities of the Lobby Control Unit at a Hi-Rise fire?
6.3.2 G. Lobby Control Unit
Recall, control, and operate elevators. Recall and search all elevator cars terminating at the lobby.
Establish and control all building access points and direct personnel to correct stair/elevator or route.
Direct building occupants and exiting personnel to proper ground level safe areas or routes.
What are the duties of the Systems Control Unit at a Hi-Rise fire?
6.3.2 H. System Control Unit
Monitor and control the Class E communications system; the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system and any other
building systems as directed by the Incident Commander.
Evaluate communications systems for functionality and operability. This includes the use of HTs, hardwire phones, cellular phones, post radios, cross-band repeaters and building repeaters.
What is the duty of the High Rise Support Unit?
6.3.2 I. High Rise Support Unit
Utilized to transport equipment via elevator to the Forward Staging Area. If the elevators cannot be used, manage the transportation of equipment and supplies to the upper floors via the stairways.
Where is the Staging area set up at a Hi-Rise fire?
6.3.2 K. Staging Area
Provides an assembly and deployment point from which large quantities of personnel and equipment are distributed.
Serves as the primary point outside the structure to which responding resources will report and receive their initial assignments.
Located away from buildings to provide personnel safety from falling glass and debris.
Who shall initially establish the Incident Command Post before the arrival of the Chief?
6.3.4 A. The first arriving officer shall establish the ICP..
If the 1st arriving officer leaves the ICP who is the prefered member that should staff it prior to the arrival of the Chief?
6.3.4 A. In the event that he or she leaves the ICP before the arrival of a Chief Officer, he or she shall
designate a member to staff the ICP, preferably the chauffeur of the first arriving ladder company. This member shall then note the units entering and leaving the lobby and their destination
At least how many spare cylinders shall be maintained at the forward staging area?
6.3.6 D. Supply sufficient spare SCBA cylinders to the Forward Staging Area to support operations. A supply of at least 20 spare SCBA cylinders shall be maintained at the Forward Staging Area.
Engine companies reporting to the Forward Staging Area shall bring with them the following equipment unless otherwise directed?
1. A SCBA for each member.
2. A standpipe kit and a nozzle.
3. A length of hose per firefighter.
4. A spare SCBA cylinder for each member.
Ladder companies reporting to the Forward Staging Area shall bring with them the following equipment, unless otherwise directed?
1. A SCBA for each member.
2. Two sets of forcible entry tools and six-foot hooks.
3. Search and utility ropes.
4. A spare SCBA cylinder for each member.
When a fixed stairwell pressurization system is operating what are the effects if we augment it with our PPF's?
The fixed stairwell pressurization system should not be augmented by FDNY Positive Pressure Ventilation Fans. Augmentation can cause leakage which will reduce pressure in the stair shaft.
Note: Buildings that have a fixed stairwell pressurization system shall be entered into CIDS.
At what stage of the fire can we use natural vertical ventilation at a Hi-Rise Office Fire?
6.3.8 D. Natural vertical ventilation (ventilation without the use of fans), is also an option. This is accomplished by opening the doors at the top and bottom of the stairway ONCE THE FIRE IS EXTINGUISHED. This will increase the stack effect and assist in the removal of smoke via the stairway.
Stack effect becomes noticeable at how many feet?
6.3.8 D 1. Its effect becomes noticeable in buildings over 60 feet, and increases as the building's height increases.
Negative stack effect is greatest when the outside air temperature is above how many degrees?
6.3.8 D 4. Negative stack effect may occur when the outside temperature is greater than the temperature inside the building. Its possibility is
greatest when the outside air temperature is above 90º F.
What are members doing an exterior inspection to report to the IC?
6.3.9 B. Establish exterior inspection by Fire Department personnel of all sides of the fire building to report the following:
1. Fire and smoke conditions.
2. Persons in distress.
3. Any unusual conditions
A group supervisor can supervise how many units before a branch should be established?
6.5.1 ICS Note: Branches are formed to address span of control issues. A Group Supervisor can supervise 3-7 units. If more units are used, a Branch should be established, and groups or sectors assigned to that Branch.
The criteria for the location of the SAE Group Supervisor shall be dependent on the following especially in regards to the elevators?
A. Fire location and severity
B. HT effectiveness
C. If possible, the SAE Group Supervisor shall choose a location on a floor which is not serviced by the same bank of elevators as the fire floor and at least five floors above the fire floor.
What 5 areas have two-way communications with the fire command station at a Hi-Rise Office Bldg?:
1. Floor warden stations.
2. Mechanical control center.
4. Air handling control rooms.
5. Elevator machinery rooms.
Manual Fire Alarm sending stations shall be located that no point on any floor shall be more than how many feet from the nearest station?
At least one manual fire alarm sending station shall be located in each path of escape in each story of a building. Additional stations shall be installed so that no point on any floor shall be more than 200 feet from the nearest station.
What 3 things happen when a manual alarm is activated?
A. Automatic transmission to the Fire Department via a central station.
B. A visual and audible signal at the fire command station, mechanical control center and the regularly assigned location of the fire safety director.
C. Sounding of the alarm on the fire floor and the floor above.
An approved combustion ionization detection device or a combination of an approved smoke detecting device and an approved fixed temperature thermostatic device shall be installed:. At each elevator landing, the activation of this device shall cause what to happen?
1. Recall the elevators.
2. Sound the fire alarm signal on the fire floor and the floor above.
3. Cause a fire alarm signal to be transmitted to the Fire Department via a central station.
4. Cause a fire alarm signal to be sounded at the fire command station, the mechanical control center and the regularly assigned location of the fire safety director.
5. Stop the air supply into and the return air from the floor where activated.
6. Activate the air exhaust fans and dampers in the smoke shaft or the pressurizing fans in the stair enclosure.
7. Unlock the doors on the locked fail safe system.
B. Within the HVAC system, the activation of this device shall accomplish all of the actions listed with the exception of recalling the elevators
7.2.6 The activation of a sprinkler water flow alarm shall accomplish all of the same actions as 7.2.5 A.
The first arriving ladder company shall obtain as much information as possible from the fire safety director or his/her surrogate regarding what?
1. Location of the fire.
2. Evacuation procedures that have been implemented.
3. Status of elevators.
4. Access stairs serving the fire floor.
What are the duties of the 2nd due Ladder company at a Hi-Rise fire?
8.4.1 C. Temporarily staffing the ICP, plus the large area that MUST be searched, mandates that the second arriving ladder company assists in the search and evacuation of the fire floor.
3rd due Ladder Company after examining the floor above the fire and reports to the ICP the following information?
8.5.1 B 4.
a. The heat and smoke conditions.
b. The status of the evacuation.
c. Any extension of the fire.
d. Presence of Access Stairs - down to fire floor or upward to floor above.
If the attack stair has occupants in it who does the 3rd due truck boss contact to withhold the attack?
8.5.1 B 7.
If difficulty is encountered in clearing the attack stairway of occupants, the officer shall advise the first arriving ladder company or the Fire Sector Supervisor or Fire Branch Director if established, to withhold the attack until the occupants have been safely removed.
The Fourth arriving ladder company shall use what to get to the roof?
2. Obtain an elevator that provides the safest access to the roof.
a. If the fire is on a floor that is not serviced by the high-rise bank of elevators, the high-rise bank will be used if it is in a blind shaft.
b. If the fire is on a floor that is serviced by the high-rise bank of elevators, they shall proceed to a location below the fire floor and then use a stairway other than the attack stairway to proceed to the roof.
What must the engine officer do prior to the initial hoseline attack commencing?
The engine company officer shall announce via the handie-talkie when the initial hoseline attack is to commence. Advancing hoselines will cause conditions opposite the hoseline and above to worsen as the heat, fire, and steam are pushed in the direction by the force of the stream. Conditions in areas behind, adjoining or above the operating
hoseline must be monitored for sudden possible deterioration due to the effects of hoseline advancement on the fire. All members must be alert to fireground communications concerning hoseline placement and the commencement of hoseline operations so that they may seek refuge if necessary.
The 2nd due Engine officer shall remain at the standpipe outlet to provide communications with the nozzle until the hoseline is?
Provide HT communications between the standpipe outlet and the nozzle by having the officer of the second arriving engine company remain at the outlet until the hoseline is operating at the correct nozzle pressure.
The 3rd and 4th due Engines shall stretch and operate the second hoseline. This hoseline may be used to?
1. Reinforce the position of the first line.
2. Protect the position of the first line.
3. Protect the search and evacuation of the fire floor.
4. Contain and confine fire spread and/or prevent fire wrapping around the core and endangering operation of the first line.
In Addendum 1 what type of emergency will put the Emergency Action Plan into effect?
1.1 Rule RCNY 6-02 was promulgated as a result of LL 26/2004 and applies to Class “E” office buildings. This Local Law mandates the adoption of standards including procedures and requirements for the protection of occupants of certain office buildings in response to NON FIRE EMERGENCIES caused by explosion, biological, chemical, radiological, nuclear, natural disaster, or the threat thereof, or declaration of emergency by lawful authority.
Hi-Rise Office Addendum 1
Who is in charge of putting the EAP into effect?
1.2 Local Law 26 expanded the role of the Fire Safety Director to an Emergency Action Plan Director (FS/EAPD) who is responsible for managing non-fire emergencies in Class “E” office buildings.
Hi-Rise Office Addendum 1
1st arriving Units shall be met by who at the Fire Command Station?
2.1 First arriving units should be met at the Fire Command Station by one of the following:
Fire Safety/Emergency Action Plan Director (FS/EAPD)
Deputy Fire Safety/Emergency Action Plan Director (DFS/EAPD)
Fire Safety/Emergency Action Plan Building Evacuation Supervisor(FS/EAPBES)
Hi Rise Office Addendum 1
What items shall be maintained at the Fire Command Station?
3.1 The following items are maintained at the Fire Command Station:
Building Information Card (BIC)
A list of special needs occupants and their location in the building, who have requested assistance in the event the EAP is implemented.
Note: The BIC can provide valuable information to the IC in the event of a fire as well as nonfire emergencies. It can be used in developing strategies and making tactical decisions.
Hi Rise Office Addendum 1
What are the four different procedures that a FS/EAPD can implement to safeguard occupants in the event of an emergency?
4.1 There are four different procedures that a FS/EAPD can implement to safeguard
occupants in the event of an emergency.
1. Shelter in Place
2. In-Building Relocation
3. Partial Building Evacuation
4. Full Building Evacuation