Histology - Integument Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Histology - Integument Deck (60)
1

primarily axilla, anus, and external genitalia, associated with hair follicles, wide lumen, merocrine secretion, innervation is sympathetic adrenergic (NE)

apocrine sweat glands

1

induces neural crest

intermediate concentration BMP4

2

contain filaggrin and other intermediate filament-associated proteins such as keratin filaments (tonofilaments). Help aggregate tonofilaments into tonofibrils

keratohyalin granules

2

melanin granule transport

via kinesin or dynein along microtubules, keratinocytes phagocytose melanocyte processes to take up melanin granules. Kensin in cytoplasmic extension, dynein in keratinocyte.

2

skin pigmentation related to...

rate of melanin degradation AND ratio of keratinocytes to melanocytes

2

antigen-presenting immune cells of the skin and mucosa, and contain large granules called Birbeck granules. They are present in all layers of the epidermis, but are most prominent in the stratum spinosum.

Langerhan’s cells - indented nucleus

2

back dermis

paraxial mesoderm

4

single cell layer, adjacent to basal lamina, cuboidal to low columnar cells, vitamin D production, stem cells (mitotically active), extensive cell junctions, desmosomes, hemidesmosomes. Life span of 2 months.

stratum basale (stratum germinativum)

4

columnar shape, produce sweat, increased mitochondria and glycogen, adjacent to intercellular canaliculi

clear (C) cells

6

darker than spinosum. one to three cell layers thick, squamous cells, retain nuclei, keratohyalin granules

stratum granulosum

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expression induces dermatome development

NT-3

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epidermal germinative zone for nail

nail matrix

9

dermis for limbs and body wall

lateral plate mesoderm

11

layers of epidermis

stratum corneum (with deep stratum lucidum in thick skin), stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum (prickle cell layer), stratum basale (stratum germinativum)

12

rapid proliferation shortens transit time from basal cell to desquamation time to about 7 days

psoriasis

12

types of sweat glands

accrine and apocrine

13

keratinocytes cell junctions

hemidesmosomes tether keratinocytes of stratum basale to basal lamina. Focal adhesion interacting with actin cells also tethering SB to BL.

14

secretory product released into duct with cell debris after apoptosis

holocrine secretion - Example: sebaceous glands of integument

15

cuticle

eponychium

16

integument functions

protection, vitamin D production, immunologic function, sensation, thermoregulation

16

Skin lines that become apparent with some diseases of the skin. The lines are believed to trace the migration of embryonic cells.

lines of Blaschko

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induces epidermis

high concentration BMP4

18

face and neck dermis

neural crest cells

19

tactlile sensation, neural crest derived,

Merkel’s cells - located in stratum basale, abundant in fingertips, synapse with pseudounipolar neurons and tethered to keratinocytes by desmosomes.

19

dermatome cells express

PAX3

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noggin, chordin, and follistatin

expression by the notochord inhibits BMP4, which allows ectoderm to form neural plate

22

are small, nipple-like extensions (or interdigitations) of the dermis into the epidermis.

dermal papillae

24

from dermatome (dermis) drives differentiation. expressed in early embryonic phases in paraxial mesoderm, which it helps to demarcate.

PAX3

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dense irregular connective tissue, less cellular, closely packed fiber bundles, thick collagen fibers (I), thick elastic fibers

reticular layer

25

acne correlation

correlation between sebum amount and acne

25

thick epidermis that secures free edge of nail

hyponychium

25

induces neural plate (CNS)

low concentration BMP4

26

secretory product released from apical end of cell into duct, takes with it some cytoplasm and plasma membrane.

apocrine secretion - Example - lactating mammary glands.

28

deep pressure, vibration

Pacinian corpuscle

28

keratinized cortex cells contain

hard keratin

30

epidermis epithelial type

keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

32

keratinocytes water barrier

formed by lamellar bodies

33

a type of nerve ending in the skin that is responsible for sensitivity to touch.

Meissner’s corpuscle, Ruffini’s corpuscle, Merkel's Cell

34

merocrine secretion, innervation is sympathetic cholinergic (ACh), sweat and antibacterial glycoprotein granules, narrow lumen in duct.

eccrine sweat glands

36

internalize and degrade HIV-1, Langerin induces formation.

Birbeck granules

37

induce ectoderm to form epidermis

BMP4 and FGF

38

collagen and elastic fibers oriented in parallel lines

Langer’s lines - surgical incisions parallel to Langer’s lines heal faster

39

free nerve ending

pain, temperature, tactile

40

variable thickness of layer, squamous cells, anucleate, keratinized cells (soft keratin)

stratum corneum (with deep stratum lucidum in thick skin)

41

no desmosomes, production of melanin granules,

melanocytes, neural crest derived. Migrate to stratum basale, PAX3 from dermatome (dermis) drives differentiation, melanin granules migrate out toward cytoplasmic extensions.

42

keratinization

accumulation of keratohyalin granules (KG) as cells differentiate from BL to surface, highest concentration of KG in stratum granulosum.

44

ABCD rule

Asymmetrical shape of lesion, Border of lesion is irregular, Color variations, Diameter greater than 6 mm.

45

loose connective tissue, more cellular, lots of ground substance, loosely arranged fibers, thin collagen fibers (I, III), thin elastic fibers

papillary layer

46

lipid product plus cell debris after apoptosis

sebum

48

cytoplasmic protein structures made of keratinin that converge at desmosomes and hemidesmosomes. Also associated with desmosomes (macula adherens), anchoring them to the cytoskeleton.

tonofibrils

50

8 layers of hair follicle

outer to inner: hair papilla, connective tissue, glassy membrane (basal lamina), external and internal root sheath, cuticle, cortex and medulla (innermost)

51

desquamation (exfoliation)

a result of proteolytic degradation of desmosomes in a pH dependent manner

52

pyramidal shape, antibacterial glycoprotein granules, increased RER and Golgi, adjacent to lumen

dark (D) cells

53

A layer of the epidermis found between the stratum granulosum and stratum basale. Spiny (Latin, spinosum) appearance is due to shrinking of the microfilaments between desmosomal that occurs when stained with H&E. Keratinization beginshere.

stratum spinosum

54

wound healing mechanism

stratum basale ramps up mitosis, migration of proliferating cells, exfoliation of dead keratinocytes frees scab, fibroblasts differentiate into myofibroblasts (directed by TGF-b1), myofibroblasts involved in wound closure

56

branched acinar gland that uses holocrine secretino to secrete sebum.

sebaceous glands

57

hair follicles, sebaceous glands, sweat glands

epidermal derivatives

58

nodes of Bizzozero

desmosomes in the stratum spinosum of epidermis

59

secretory product released from apical end of cell via exocytosis into duct.

merocrine secretion - example - sweat glands of integument.

60

secrete (exocytosis) pro-barrier lipids, lipid processing enzymes, and proteases into intercellular space between stratum granulosum and stratum corneum

lamellar bodies