Histology - Respiration Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Histology - Respiration Deck (47)
1

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Ciliated cells: Lose synchronized beating, Decrease in #s ciliated cells Goblet cells: Increase secretion, Increase in #s goblet cells Seromucous glands: Increase secretion, Hypertrophy

2

Cystic Fibrosis

Defective chloride ion regulator. NaCl build up in cell, draws water from mucus. Dehydrated viscous musuc, mucociliary escalator ineffective, muscous plugs obstruct airways, chronic infections.

3

Kulchitsky cells (small granule cells)

Neuroendocrine cells (catecholamine, serotonin, etc.) that may participate in local reflexes regulating airway or vascular caliber (neuroepithelial bodies)

4

Trachea 1' Bronchi Characteristics

Pseudostratifeid columnar, cilated & goblet cells, K cells, brush cells, basal cells, seromucus glands, hyaline cartilage

5

Clara cells

dome-shaped cells with short microvilli, found in the small airways (bronchioles). protect the bronchiolar epithelium, secrete lung surfactant, detoxify harmful substance, also act as a stem cell, multiplying and differentiating into ciliated cells

6

Smooth muscle in tracheobronchial tree

Deep, it contracts to control air velocity and distribution.

7

Bronchial Asthma (extrinsic)

Starts as hypersensitivity reaction. Characterized by mucus in lumen, inflammation and BM thickening, enlarged musous glands, smooth muscle hyperplasia.

8

Patency Support (Cartilage) in Trachea

"C" - shaped Cartiledge Rings

9

Patency Support (Cartilage) In 2' & 3' Bronchi

Discontinuous Plates

10

Patency Support (Cartilage) in Bronchioles (incl. terminal bronchioles):

Elastic fibers and surfactant from Clara Cells

11

Interalveolar Septum Occupants

1. Type I alveolar cells (2) 2. Type I capillary endothelium 3. Fused basal lamina between endothelial cell & type I cell

12

Path of O2 (From alveolar air space to RBC)

1. Cytoplasm: Type I alveolar cell (P1)

2. Fused basal lamina (BM)

3. Cytoplasm: Endothelial cell (E)

13

Surfactant functions

Surface tension, anti-bacterial-viral-fungi, inflammatory response functions

14

Alveolar macrophages (M)

Antigen presentation, Inflammatory response. Originate from monocytes, called dust cells.

15

Terminal bronchiole epithelium

Simple cuboidal, Clara cells, ciliated cells (NO alveoli)

16

Respiratory bronchiole epithelium

Simple cuboidal, Clara cells, Simple squamous (type I alveolar cells) lining alveoli. Bands of smooth muscle.

17

Alveolar duct epithelium

Simple squamous (type I alveolar cells) lining alveoli (+ other cells present in alveolus) . SLIPS of smooth muscle.

18

Terminal bronchiole patecy support

Elastic fibers, Surfactant (Clara cells)

19

Respiratory bronchiole patency support

Elastic fibers, Surfactant (Clara cells & type II cells)

20

Alveolar duct patency support

Elastic fibers, Surfactant (type II cells)

21

Alveolar sac and Alveolus Basic Characteristics

Simple squamous (type I alveolar cells) lining alveoli (+ other cells present in alveolus) . NO smooth muscle. {atency support from Eeastic fibers, Surfactant (type II cells).

22

GI & respiratory systems embryonic germ layer

Endoderm

23

smooth mm, general CT (organs), cardiac muscle, connective tissue, circulatory system (blood and lymph) embryonic orgin

visceral (splanchnic) mesoderm

24

Tracheoesophageal septum

Formed by fusion of two longitudinally-oriented tracheoesophageal ridges (or folds). Separates the trachea (anterior) from the esophagus (posterior).

25

Respiratory diverticulum

lung bud

26

most common Tracheoesophageal malformation

Esophageal atresia with Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF)

27

Canalicular period

16 weeks = 26-28 weeks

28

Surfactant production begins at

20 weeks

29

Terminal sac period

(26-28 weeks – birth) Capillaries now associated with primitive alveoli, blood-air barrier established.

30

Alveolar period

More primitive alveoli develop & mature into adult alveoli. Lung takes on open, “lacy” appearance .At end of 300 million alveoli present

31

Trends in Respiration from Upper to Lower Tracts

Lower portions of the respiratory tract show progressive loss of the various components characteristic of the trachea; that is, less and less cartilage, progressively lower epithelium, gradual loss of goblet cells, and finally loss of cilia and smooth muscle.

32

Where do Clara cells begin? Where do they end?

BEGIN: Primary bronchioles
END: Alveolar ducts

33

Separates the trachea (anterior) from the esophagus (posterior). Formed by fusion of two longitudinally-oriented ridges (or folds).

Tracheoesophageal septum

34

Type I cells    

(97% of alveolar surfaces) line the alveoli. Squamous; thin for optimal gas diffusion. 

35

Type II cells

(3%) secrete pulmonary surfactant (dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine), which increases the alveolar surface tension. Cuboidal and clustered. Also serve as precursors to type I cells and other type II cells. Type II cells proliferate during lung damage. 

36

Airway Submucosa Components

Loose Commective Tissue (Elastic fibers, larger blood & lymphatic 
vessels.)

Smooth muscle or Glands

37

Most common tracheoesophogeal abnormality (90%)

VACTERL association.

Esophageal atresia with 
Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF)

38

VACTERL

Vertebral defects 
Anal atresia 
Cardiac defects 
TEF 
Esophageal atresia 
Renal defects 
Limb defects

39

Ends 16 weeks = 4 months

- Terminal bronchioles (cuboidal epithelium) 
- Capillaries present (not associated) 
- No respiratory bronchi or alveoli

Pseudoglandular period

40

Canalicular period

16 weeks = 26-28 weeks

Terminal bronchioles (cuboidal epi.) 

Respiratory bronchioles (cuboidal epi.) 

Capillaries present (not associated) 

No alveoli

41

Terminal sac period 

26-28 weeks – birth

- Blood-Air-Barrier established.

- Terminal sacs or Primitive alveoli lined by simple squamous cells.
- Capillaries now associated with primitive alveoli

- Surfactant secretion greatly increases

42

Alveolar period 

Birth - 8 - 10 years

More primitive alveoli develop & mature into adult alveoli 
Lung takes on open, “lacy” appearance.
At end of alveolar period: 300 million alveoli present

43

Visceral Pleura Origin

Sphlanic Mesoderm

44

Parietal Pleura Origin

Somatic Mesoderm

45

Large Cell Undifferentiated Carcinoma

Mutations in stem cells of the epithelium due to persistent exposure to carcinogens (smoking)

46

Small Cell Carcinoma

Mutations in epithelial neuroendocrine cells from persistent exposure

47

Mutations of ciliated cells and mucous cells can cause...

Adenocarcinoma