Histology - Urinary System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Histology - Urinary System Deck (58)
1

composed of renal corpuscles, proximal convoluted tubules, and distal convoluted tubules

cortical labyrinth

2

impermeable to water but permeable to salts

ascending thin limb of Henle

2

when filtration rate is low…

macula densa cells stimulate juxtaglomerular (granular) cells to increase release of the protease enzyme renin into the blood

3

separates renal pyramids from one another

renal columns (of Bertin)

4

stimulates bone marrow to produce RBCs

erythropoietin (EPO)

4

aldosterone

causes greater sodium reabsorption from distal tubules and collecting tubules, which then triggers the release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the pituitary gland to increase blood volume and blood pressure (and concentrate urine)

5

afferent glomerular arterioles

supply renal corpuscles

6

absence of ADH

makes collecting tubules impermeable to water and allows urine to be dilute (hypotonic) and have high volume

7

EPO produced by

peritubular capillary cells, chronic kidney diseases may result in anemia

7

thin inner and outer longitudinal smooth muscle layers, with a thick middle circular smooth muscle layer that forms the internal urethral sphincter muscle around the internal orifice of the urethra

bladder muscularis (detrusor muscle)

7

impermeable to water but permeable to salts, sodium reabsorption increases in response to aldosterone from adrenal (suprarenal) cortex

distal tubule of nephron

8

Modified smooth muscle cellsbetween capillaries. They have phagocytic activity, removing proteins and other molecules trapped in the glomerular basement membrane or filtration barrier.They secrete interleukin 1 and platelet derived growth factor to aid in repair.

intraglomerular mesangial cells

9

the initial blood-filtering component of a nephron. It consists of two structures: a glomerulus and a Bowman's capsule.

renal corpuscle

10

Mucus secreting glands in lamina propitia of urethra.

glands of Littre

10

ADH stimulates

the insertion of aquaporins into the plasma membrane of principal cells (light cells) to allow water to move from lumen into cells; majority of cells lining the collecting tubule are light staining principal cells

11

purpose of the renal system

eliminate wastes from the body, regulate blood volume and pressure, control levels of electrolytes and metabolites, and regulate blood pH.

11

external urethral sphincter

skeletal muscle fubers where urethra pierces perineum

12

permeable to water and salts, active transport of sodium by Na+/K+ ATPase pumps, passive diffusion of water through aquaporins (water channels)

proximal tubule of nephron. Reabsorption back into blood supply of 65 - 70% of water, sodium, and chloride, as well as 100% of proteins, amino acids, and glucose.

14

collecting tubules derive from

ureteric bud

15

overlies base of renal pyramid

cortical arch

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peritubular capillary network

supplies tubule system

17

loose connective tissue in cortex contains cells that resemble fibroblasts, and occasional macrophages, while in medulla it contains cells that resemble myofibroblasts

renal interstitium (stroma), reabsorbed water and other molecules pass from nephron and collecting tubule into renal interstitium and then into blood supply

18

nephron chief function

regulate the concentration of water and soluble substances like sodium salts by filtering the blood, reabsorbing what is needed and excreting the rest as urine.

19

transitional epithelium 3-5 cells thick, lamina propria of dense irregular fibroelastic connective tissue

ureter mucosa

19

disease characterized by low ADH production

neurogenic or central diabetes insipidus

20

distal tubule between pars recta and pars convoluta, near the afferent and efferent glomerular arterioles (vascular pole), tall narrow cuboidal cells whose nuclei are close together

macula densa cells

21

kidney lymphatic supply

superficial and deep lymph vessels follow larger arteries, form larger lymph vessels near the hilum, and then travel to lymph nodes near the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava.

22

renal innervation

sympathetic nerve fibers from renal plexus innervate blood vessels, renal tubules, juxtaglomerular cells, interstitial cells, and the kidney capsule

23

contains mechanoreceptors sensitive to stretch

trigone

24

has folded transitional epithelium as mucosa

empty bladder

25

granular cells of afferent glomerular arteriole, modified smooth muscle cells that contain granules of protease enzyme renin

juxtaglomerular cells

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proteins < 5 kD

freely permeable across filtration apparatus, while proteins > 75 kD are impermeable

28

similar in appearance to capillary pericytes but unknown function

extraglomerular mesangial cells

30

conspicuous lateral plasma membranes

collecting tubule

32

renal pyramid + associated cortical tissue at base and sides

lobe

33

contains medullary rays and cortical labyrinth, that together comprise a lobule

cortex

34

is apex of renal pyramid, contains area cribrosa (with about 20 papillary ducts of Bellini) and empties into minor calyx

renal papilla

35

urinary plaques

thickened reginos of plasma membrane that associate with actin filmaments and invaginate in relaxed urinary bladder. Appear as "vesicles" in TEM, but their lumen is continuous with cell exterior.

36

stimulates the angiotensin pathway in the blood, leading to an increase in aldosterone release from the adrenal (suprarenal) cortex

Renin

37

bladder serosa location

present in regions with a peritoneal reflection onto the wall of the urinary bladder

38

prevent regurgitation of urine from bladder back into ureters

flap of mucosa hanging over ureteric orifice

39

contains renal pyramids, cortical arches, and cortical columns

medulla

40

medullary ray + surrounding cortical labyrinth

lobule

41

renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS).

low filtration rate -> MDC stimulate JGC to release renin. Renin -> angiotensin pathway -> increased aldosterone from adrenal cortex. Aldosterone -> greater sodium reabsobtion from distal tubule and collecting tubules, which triggers ADH from pituitary gland to increase blood volume and pressure.

42

filtration apparatus

Part of renal corpuscle. Contains: fenestrated endothelial cells of glomerulus (without diaphragms), thick basal lamina from podocytes and glomelular endothelial cells, filtration slit diaphragm between pedicels

43

dense irregular collagenous connective tissue. myofibroblasts, function unknown

kidney capsule

44

disease characterized by inability to respond to ADH

nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (ex. Mutation of aquraporin gene)

46

nephrons derive from

metanephric blastema

47

a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and water (fluid) balance.

renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). If abnormally active, blood pressure too high.

48

ureter layers

mucosa, NO submucosa or muscularis mucosa, muscularis (inner long., outer circ., outer long. For distal third), and adventitia

49

composed of collecting tubules, and thick descending and ascending limbs of Henle’s loop; appear to radiate from medulla

medullary rays

51

three regions of male urethra

prostatic urethra (transitional epi), membranous urethea (stratified columnar), spongy penile urethea (strat. Columnar w/ patches of psuedostrat and strat squamous).

52

stratified epithelium located exclusively in urinary system, impermeable barrier to urine

transitional epithelium (urothelium). - characteristic dome-shaped cells facing lumen that flatten out in full urinary bladder. Often BINUCLEATE.

53

secrete H+ or HCO3- into lumen to maintain appropriate urine pH;

intercalated cells (dark cells)

54

permeable to water but impermeable to salts

descending thin limb of Henle

56

composed of collecting tubules, thick descending and ascending limbs of Henle’s loop, and thin limbs of Henle’s loop

renal (medullary) pyramids

57

autoimmune response to collagen type IV that affects GBM of renal corpuscles. Symptoms include: hematuria and proteinuria. Also affects alveolar BM. Treatment includes plasmapharesis, coticosteroids, and immunosuppressive drugs.

Goodpasture syndrome

58

presence of ADH

makes collecting tubules permeable to water and allows urine to be concentrated (hypertonic) and have normal volume