Flashcards in Histology - Cytology Flashcards Deck (42)
phosopholipid bilayer (histological trilayer), Transport through the membrane may be passive or active (requires extra energy). Some organelles are membrane-bound (e.g., golgi, RER, SER, mitochondria, lysosomes, nucleus).
“condensed” DNA, electron sense; little or no trnscription.
“uncoiled” DNA; electron lucent; active transcription
rRNA synthesis, ribosome assembly; prominent feature during protein synthesis.
double-membrane later; nuclear pores.
contains organelles required to synthesize, package, and secrete proteins - exocytosis. Has a lot of RER, golgi app., and secretory vesicles.
Flattened, membranous sacs w/ ribosomes. ER-bound ribosomes on membrane surface synthesize proteins into cisterna (lumen). (secretory proteins, membrane proteins, and lysosomal enzymes)
Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)
Flattened, membranous sacs; no ribosomes. Modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the RER into membrane-bound vesicles. Vesicles are transported to the plasma membrane (or to lysosomes).
Membrane-bound, carry secretory proteins. Transported to the plasma membrane, fuse with it, release products into extracellular environment.
Secretory vesicles (granules)
vesicles stored until signaled to be released at once. (paneth cells)
products secreted as they are formed (plasma cells)
Abundant organelles required to synthesize lipid-based products. No vesciles: lipids pass easily through membranes. See a lot of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), vesicular mitochondria, lipid inclusions.
Membrane-enclosed tubes; no ribosomes. Convert choloestreols into streroid products (e.g., testosterone, estrogen, clucocoticoids)
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)
Contain tube-shaped cristae; modify steroids.
Cholesterol storage for steroid production.
Lipid inclusions (droplets)
Rod-shaped, double-membrane. Outer: smooth. Inner: folded, from cristae. ATP sysnthesis during aerobic respiation. Provides energy for active transport. Has microvilli and basal folds.
folded plasma membrane and cytoplasm adjacent ot lumen.
folded plasma membrane and cytoplasm adjacent to a other tissies, increases SA.
Engulf macromolecules, cellular debris, bacteria. Identifys targets with receptors, engulfs targes with pseudopodia. Degrades targets with lysosomes (pgaholysosomes). Stores non-degradable components within residual body.
spherical, membrane-enclosed. Degrade ALL endocytosed material (anything brought into cell within vesicles) with hydrolytic enzymes. Also has autophagy - "self-eating". Degraded contents are recycles; indigestible contents are stored in residual bodies and exocytosed.
"cell drinking", generalized type of endocytosis by all cells. Brings in water & small dissolved solutes. Forms vesicles; fuse with lysosomes.
highly selective endocytosis. Cargo proteins bind to cargo receptors.
Synthesis of proteins used inside the cell, -not secreted, not within vesicles. Not especially abundant in protein secreting cells.
Free ribosomes (polyribosomes)
cell morphology (shape), movement (organelles within cell, transport along surface, movement of whole cell). Components: Actin (thin filaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules).
support, contraction, adhesion (Adherens junction, fascia adherens)
adhesion (high tensile strength), (desmosomes)
support, movement, Lengthen and shorten (- end and + end). Formation directed by MTOC, a centrosome contianing 2 centrioles) (flagella, cilia)
1. integrity to plasma membrane. 2. integrity of genetic apparatus. 3. protein synthesis. 4. aerobic respiration.
4 ways to kill a cell
disrupt integrity of genetic apparatus
disrupt integrity of plasma membrane
disrupts protein synthesis, waste builds up.
lysosomal storage disease
disrupts aerobic respiration.
intentional and controlled cellular disassembly causing cell death
unintentional cell death from injury
fixes reversible damage from injury
adaptation to stress, making more cells
daapttaion to stress, grow bigger
cells grow smallser, response to stress
cells transform in response to stress