Histology - Cytology Flashcards Preview

Histology > Histology - Cytology Flashcards > Flashcards

Flashcards in Histology - Cytology Flashcards Deck (42)
1

phosopholipid bilayer (histological trilayer), Transport through the membrane may be passive or active (requires extra energy). Some organelles are membrane-bound (e.g., golgi, RER, SER, mitochondria, lysosomes, nucleus).

Plasma membrane

2

outside layer

e-face

3

inner face

p-face

4

“condensed” DNA, electron sense; little or no trnscription.

Heterochromatin

5

“uncoiled” DNA; electron lucent; active transcription

Euchromatin

6

rRNA synthesis, ribosome assembly; prominent feature during protein synthesis.

Nucleolus

7

double-membrane later; nuclear pores.

Nuclear envelope

8

contains organelles required to synthesize, package, and secrete proteins - exocytosis. Has a lot of RER, golgi app., and secretory vesicles.

Protein-secreting cell

9

Flattened, membranous sacs w/ ribosomes. ER-bound ribosomes on membrane surface synthesize proteins into cisterna (lumen). (secretory proteins, membrane proteins, and lysosomal enzymes)

Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)

10

Flattened, membranous sacs; no ribosomes. Modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the RER into membrane-bound vesicles. Vesicles are transported to the plasma membrane (or to lysosomes).

Golgi Apparatus

11

Membrane-bound, carry secretory proteins. Transported to the plasma membrane, fuse with it, release products into extracellular environment.

Secretory vesicles (granules)

12

vesicles stored until signaled to be released at once. (paneth cells)

Regulated secretion

13

products secreted as they are formed (plasma cells)

Constitutive secretion

14

Abundant organelles required to synthesize lipid-based products. No vesciles: lipids pass easily through membranes. See a lot of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), vesicular mitochondria, lipid inclusions.

Steroid-secreting cell

15

Membrane-enclosed tubes; no ribosomes. Convert choloestreols into streroid products (e.g., testosterone, estrogen, clucocoticoids)

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)

16

Contain tube-shaped cristae; modify steroids.

Vesicular mitochondria

17

Cholesterol storage for steroid production.

Lipid inclusions (droplets)

18

Rod-shaped, double-membrane. Outer: smooth. Inner: folded, from cristae. ATP sysnthesis during aerobic respiation. Provides energy for active transport. Has microvilli and basal folds.

Mitochondria

19

folded plasma membrane and cytoplasm adjacent ot lumen.

Microvilli

20

folded plasma membrane and cytoplasm adjacent to a other tissies, increases SA.

Basal folds

21

Engulf macromolecules, cellular debris, bacteria. Identifys targets with receptors, engulfs targes with pseudopodia. Degrades targets with lysosomes (pgaholysosomes). Stores non-degradable components within residual body.

Phagocytic cell

22

spherical, membrane-enclosed. Degrade ALL endocytosed material (anything brought into cell within vesicles) with hydrolytic enzymes. Also has autophagy - "self-eating". Degraded contents are recycles; indigestible contents are stored in residual bodies and exocytosed.

Lysosomes

23

"cell drinking", generalized type of endocytosis by all cells. Brings in water & small dissolved solutes. Forms vesicles; fuse with lysosomes.

Pinocytosis

24

highly selective endocytosis. Cargo proteins bind to cargo receptors.

Receptor-mediated endocytosis

25

Synthesis of proteins used inside the cell, -not secreted, not within vesicles. Not especially abundant in protein secreting cells.

Free ribosomes (polyribosomes)

26

cell morphology (shape), movement (organelles within cell, transport along surface, movement of whole cell). Components: Actin (thin filaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules).

Cytoskeleton

27

support, contraction, adhesion (Adherens junction, fascia adherens)

Actin

28

adhesion (high tensile strength), (desmosomes)

Intermediate filaments

29

support, movement, Lengthen and shorten (- end and + end). Formation directed by MTOC, a centrosome contianing 2 centrioles) (flagella, cilia)

Microtubules

30

1. integrity to plasma membrane. 2. integrity of genetic apparatus. 3. protein synthesis. 4. aerobic respiration.

4 ways to kill a cell

31

disrupt integrity of genetic apparatus

viral infections

32

disrupt integrity of plasma membrane

bacteria infections

33

disrupts protein synthesis, waste builds up.

lysosomal storage disease

34

disrupts aerobic respiration.

hypoxia

35

intentional and controlled cellular disassembly causing cell death

Apoptosis

36

unintentional cell death from injury

necrosis

37

fixes reversible damage from injury

repair

38

adaptation to stress, making more cells

hyperplasia

39

daapttaion to stress, grow bigger

hypertrophy

40

cells grow smallser, response to stress

atrophy

41

cells transform in response to stress

metaplasia

42

hyperplasia, hypertrophy, atrophy, metaplasia

ways cells respond to stress