Hypertension General Flashcards Preview

Jason's Renal Block > Hypertension General > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hypertension General Deck (33):
1

____% of australians over 25 have HTN?

30%

2

does BP increase with age?

Yes, Systolic/pulse pressure more so

3

Definition of HTN?

>140/90mmHg

4

What is primary HTN? what %?

no identifiable cause 90-95%

5

what is secondary HTN? what %?

has a cause. 5-10%

6

what is 'benign' HTN?

slow rise, doesn't get crazy high

7

what is malignant HTN?

rapid rise in BP

8

2 forces that control BP?

Cardiac output: SV, HR, Volume
Arteriole resistance

9

what happens to aorta in age related change?

decreased elastin,
increased collagen in intima

10

age related change in small/medium arteries?

fragmented elastin,
intimal thickening due to collagen
calcification

11

what commonly happens in arterioles with age related changes?

hyaline arteriolosclerosis (glassy)

12

what is hyaline arteriolosclerosis?

deposition of plasma proteins in vessel walls

13

does HTN have a single gene defect?

Nope. Very Polygenic

14

HTN multifactorial such as?

Lifestyle
age, gender race

15

who has lower blood pressure? premenopausal, age-matched males, post menopausal?

premenopausal

16

How do you get wide pulse pressure? 2 main reasons

decreased compliance of aorta
increased stroke volume

17

secondary HTN causes? 5 main?

Renal
Endocrine: from tumours over producing
vascular
medication
other: OSA, preg

18

Does atherosclerosis cause hypertension?

In some circumstances

19

main problem that essential HTN causes?

LV hypertrophy

20

What can happen with HTN in:
large/medium arteries?
Circle of Willis?
arterioles?

atherosclerosis/aortic dissection
berry aneurysm
hyaline arteriolosclerosis

21

main vessel defect in aneurysm is because of weakening of?

media

22

Where is the blood in an aortic dissection?

in the media

23

Does a reduced LV chamber size cause cardiac failure

Nope.

24

why is the kidney sensitive to HTN?

unprotected glomerulus

25

what can hyaline arteriolosclerosis cause chronically?

ischaemia/tubular necrosis

26

what is a marker of severity of chronic kidney disease?

proteinuria

27

What's the most common cause of HTN induced kidney infarct?

atheroemboli: cholesterol crystal

28

two things that can happen in brain with HTN? 3 things

infarct from hyaline arteriolosclerosis
intracerebral haemorrhage
berry aneurysm

29

what happens in retina with HTN?

AV nipping, exudates, ischaemia, haemorrhages

30

complication of malignant HTN usually arise which structures?

smaller arteries/arterioles

31

2 vessel effects of malignant hypertension?

hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis
fibrinoid necrosis/thrombosis

32

What can happen to brain with malignant hypertension?

encephalopathy

33

what happens to retina with malignant hypertension?

retinopathy, hemorrhages, exudates