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Flashcards in Adverse Effects of Drugs Deck (20):
0

Adverse drug reactions in ___% of patients?

5%

1

3 risk factors for adverse drug reaction?

previous adverse drug reaction
Pharmacodynamics
pharmacokinetics

2

3 pharmacokinetic risks for ADR?

impairment of liver/kidney
extremes of age
polypharmacy

3

High or low therapeutic index better?

High therapeutic index, larger window

4

5 red flag low therapeutic index drugs?

anticoagulants
cardiac glycosides
anticonvulsants
lithium
hypoglycaemics

5

what are 3 dose-dependent drug reactions? and the 1 none-dose dependent reaction?

side effects
overdose effects
idiosyncratic effects

Hypersensitivity reaction

6

when do side effects occur? features? what levels?

at therapeutic level
frequent
predictable

7

2 examples of on-target therapy but that same target is at multiple sites?

selectivity: B-adrenoceptors heart and airways
context: muscarinic for reducing SLUD before Sx or for IBS Rx

8

Aspirin desired response vs. undesired response

analgesic vs. gastric bleeding

9

B-adrenoceptor antagonists desired response vs. undesired response

hypertension vs. worsened asthma

10

Adrenaline desired response vs. undesired response

local anaesthetic vs. cardiac excitability

11

example of off-target side-effects?

poor selectivity: tricyclic antidepressants
metabolism: terfenadine and grapefruit juice: inhibiting K+

12

overdose happens when drug accumulates where? which ones more likely?

plasma
more likely with low therapeutic index

14

2 deleterious overdose effects?

fatal: atropine (deadly night shade)
pathological damage: paracetamol

15

What takes care of NAPQI?

glutathione

16

suxamethonium is an example of what kind of adverse effect?

idiosyncratic effect? ppl with absent pseudocholinesterase = skeletal muscle paralysis

17

2 examples of idiosyncratic effects?

suxamethonium
codeine: if missing CYP2D6: does not convert to morphine

18

hypersensitivity reactions are or aren't dose dependent?

NOT dose dependent

19

single exposure in hypersensitivity reactions triggers what?

extreme responses: harmless rash to life threatening anaphylaxis

20

what is the basis for hypersensitivity reactions? 2 example?

immunological basis
cross sensitisation low MW
widespread antibiotics in food chain