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3 things to take away from the lecture:

autoregulation
clearance
macula densa

1

4 main functions of kidney

1. water sodium balance
2. ion control, K+, CA2+, Mg2+
3. acid-base balance
4. excretion

2

is acid-base balance only done by kidney?

nope. in conjunction with lungs

3

what happens if ion concentrations get out of hand?

could be deadly and sudden death from nerve, muscle, brain damage

4

uraemia is what?

chronic renal failure due to a general plethora of products

5

what does Renin do?

hormone what regulates BP and Na+

6

Vitamin D3 has homey hydroxyl compared to calciferol?

3OH vs. 1OH

7

what does formation of concentrated urine do? what is min vs. max?

excrete toxins and waste
30mOsm/L - 1200 mOsm/L

8

what is formation of dilute urine do?

remove excess water

9

85% of glomeruli are what?

superficial cortical glomeruli SCGs

10

what are JM glomeruli?

juxtamedullary glomeruli: deep penetrating loops of HEnle into medula

11

SCGs are what?

superficial cortical glomeruli with shallow penetrance of loops of Henle

12

more loops of henle deeper or superficially?

superficially due to 85% of glomeruli being SCGs

13

juxtamedullary glomeruli account for concentration gradient, where is it higher? lower?

300 at superficial
1200 in deepest papilla part of medulla

14

Expand these acronyms: PCT, tDLH, tALH, TAL, DT, CD

proximal convoluted tubule
thin descending loop of henle
thin ascending loop of henle
Thick ascending loop of henle
Distal Tubule
collecting duct

15

where does the TAL attach to parent glomerulus?

end of TAL attaches between efferent and afferent arteriole

16

how many nephrons per kidney?

1 million

17

how many L out of daily 180L of filtrate goes back into efferent arteriole?

178L

18

what is renal blood flow per minute? per kidney?

1L/min, 500ml per kidney

19

filtration fraction is?

20% or 0.2

20

what is normal haematocrit?

40

21

if renal plasma flow is 600ml, what is total GFR? GFR per kidney?

total GFR is 125ml or 60ml per kidney

22

how much cardiac output needed to run the renal filtration system?

20%

23

describe the efferent renal arteriole

artery to capillary to artery to capillary to vein

24

Na+ or K+ more important for secretion?

K+

25

macula densa cells close to the arteriole make what? does what?

Renin which ends up vasoconstricting

26

macula densa detect Na+ feeback via paracrine mediators such as? what does it adjust?

prostaglandins and adenosine
alters afferent arteriole tone to adjust resistance and keep glomerulus constant at 50mmHg

27

epithelial granular cells near afferent arteriole make what?

Renin

28

What is myogenic response/reflex?

if too much stretch on afferent arteriole, is contracts to mitigate any dilating force

29

Creatinine level is equated roughly the same as the?

GFR