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Flashcards in Kidney Function 1 Deck (48):
0

3 things to take away from the lecture:

autoregulation
clearance
macula densa

1

4 main functions of kidney

1. water sodium balance
2. ion control, K+, CA2+, Mg2+
3. acid-base balance
4. excretion

2

is acid-base balance only done by kidney?

nope. in conjunction with lungs

3

what happens if ion concentrations get out of hand?

could be deadly and sudden death from nerve, muscle, brain damage

4

uraemia is what?

chronic renal failure due to a general plethora of products

5

what does Renin do?

hormone what regulates BP and Na+

6

Vitamin D3 has homey hydroxyl compared to calciferol?

3OH vs. 1OH

7

what does formation of concentrated urine do? what is min vs. max?

excrete toxins and waste
30mOsm/L - 1200 mOsm/L

8

what is formation of dilute urine do?

remove excess water

9

85% of glomeruli are what?

superficial cortical glomeruli SCGs

10

what are JM glomeruli?

juxtamedullary glomeruli: deep penetrating loops of HEnle into medula

11

SCGs are what?

superficial cortical glomeruli with shallow penetrance of loops of Henle

12

more loops of henle deeper or superficially?

superficially due to 85% of glomeruli being SCGs

13

juxtamedullary glomeruli account for concentration gradient, where is it higher? lower?

300 at superficial
1200 in deepest papilla part of medulla

14

Expand these acronyms: PCT, tDLH, tALH, TAL, DT, CD

proximal convoluted tubule
thin descending loop of henle
thin ascending loop of henle
Thick ascending loop of henle
Distal Tubule
collecting duct

15

where does the TAL attach to parent glomerulus?

end of TAL attaches between efferent and afferent arteriole

16

how many nephrons per kidney?

1 million

17

how many L out of daily 180L of filtrate goes back into efferent arteriole?

178L

18

what is renal blood flow per minute? per kidney?

1L/min, 500ml per kidney

19

filtration fraction is?

20% or 0.2

20

what is normal haematocrit?

40

21

if renal plasma flow is 600ml, what is total GFR? GFR per kidney?

total GFR is 125ml or 60ml per kidney

22

how much cardiac output needed to run the renal filtration system?

20%

23

describe the efferent renal arteriole

artery to capillary to artery to capillary to vein

24

Na+ or K+ more important for secretion?

K+

25

macula densa cells close to the arteriole make what? does what?

Renin which ends up vasoconstricting

26

macula densa detect Na+ feeback via paracrine mediators such as? what does it adjust?

prostaglandins and adenosine
alters afferent arteriole tone to adjust resistance and keep glomerulus constant at 50mmHg

27

epithelial granular cells near afferent arteriole make what?

Renin

28

What is myogenic response/reflex?

if too much stretch on afferent arteriole, is contracts to mitigate any dilating force

29

Creatinine level is equated roughly the same as the?

GFR

30

3 components of filtration in Bowman's Capsule?

filtration slits
basal lamina
fenestrations

31

what is hallmark of advanced diabetes?

albumin in the urine as the basal lamina degenerate, lose negative charge and ability to repel

32

what is normal hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capillary?

50mmHg

33

what is normal hydrostatic pressure in Bowman's capsule?

10mmHg

34

what is normal oncotic pressure in glomerular capillary?

25-40mmHg

35

what is normal oncotic pressure in Bowman's capsule?

0mmHg

36

what is the normal net filtration pressure across bowman's capsule?

10mmHg into nephron

37

Angiotension II preferentially constricts which arteriole?

efferent arteriole

38

which arteriole does autoregulation occur at?

afferent arteriole

39

BP can vary between what and still maintain normal GFR?

80-180mm Hg

40

what happens if low sodium? how do you maintain BP?

macula densa detects, triggers Renin to increase BP via unknown mechanism

41

what are the 3 drivers of renin release?

sympathetic
decreased BP
decreased NaCl

42

Renin affects afferent or efferent?

efferent

43

what happens if Na+ too high?

releases thromboxane and adenosine which constricts afferent

44

Renal clearance of a substance equation is?

Urine Volume / plasma concentration

45

Inulin is a marker for what?

GFR

46

how much Glucose clearance per minute in nephron?

0mL/min

47

penicillin reabsorbed?

nope. freely filtered and even secreted