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Flashcards in HYPS Psychology/ Sociology Deck (10)
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What areas of the brain may be affected if one or multiple lesions are found in the forebrain, and what cognitive or life functions would be lost? Could an individual survive the loss of this area of the brain?

Parts of the forebrain include= cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, limbic system, thalamus, and hypothalamus.


Cerebral cortex

Part of forebrain. Outer covering of the cerebral hemispheres. It is divided into four lobes, each of which serves specific functions: Frontal lobe: executive function, impulse control, long-term planning (prefrontal cortex), motor function (primary motor cortex), speech production (Brocas area). 2 Parietal lobe: sensation of touch , pressure, temp, and pain (somatosensory cortex); spatial processing , orientation, and manipulation. 3 Occipital lobe- visual processing. 4. Temporal lobe- sound processing (auditory cortex), speech perception (wernicke's area), memory, and emotion (limbic system)


Basal Ganglia

Coordinate muscles moments as they receive information from the cortex and relay this information to the brain and the spinal cord. The basal ganglia smoothens movements and help maintain postural stability.


Limbic system

Comprises a group of interconnected structures looping around the central portion of the brain and is primarily associated with emotion and memory. Septal nuclei: Involved with feelings of pleasure, pleasure- seeking behavior, and addiction. Amygdala- controls fear and aggression. Hippocampus: Consolidates memories and communicates with other parts of the limbic system through an extension called the fornix



Serves as an important sensory relay station for incoming sensory information, including all senses except for smell. After receiving incoming sensory impulses, the thalamus sorts them and then transmits them to the appropriate projection areas in the cerebral cortex



A key player in emotional experience during high-arousal states, aggressive behavior and sexual behavior. It also controls many endocrine functions as well as the autonomic nervous system. homeostatic functions.


Would survival be possible if there were multiple lesions in forebrain?

Yes, but with dramatic changes in quality of life, ability to take care of oneself, and mood. Midbrain and Hindbrain are required for survival.


What are the parts of the hindbrain and the meaningful functions these areas serve?

The hindbrain is located where the brain meets the spinal cord and includes the medulla oblongata, pons, cerebellum, and reticular formation. The medulla oblongata is responsible for regulating vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion. The pons contains sensory and motor pathways between the cortex and medulla. The cerebellum is at the top of the hindbrain and helps maintain posture, balance, and coordination of body movements. Damage to this area causes clumsiness, slurred speech, and loss of balance; note that these are similar to the impairments cuased by alcohol , which largely affects the cerebellum. The reticular formation controls general arousal processes and alertness.


What are the three parts of the hypothalamus and what functions does each part serve?

The hypothalamus is subdivided into three areas; lateral ventromedial and anterior. Lateral hypothalamus is referred to as the hunger center and contains special receptors thought to detect when the body needs more food or fluids. The ventromedial hypothalamus is identified as the satiety center and provides signals to stop eating. The anterior hypothalamus regulates sexual behavior, sleep, and body temp.


What parts of the brain make up the cerebrum? How is the cerebrum associated with Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia?

The cerebrum is composed of the basal ganglia , limbic system, and cerebral cortex; it can be divided between left and right hemispheres. The basal ganglia coordinate muscle movements as they receive information from the cortex and relay this information to the brain and spinal cord. the basal ganglia includes the extrapyramidal motor system, which gathers information about body position and carries this information to the brain and spinal cord, helping to smoothen movements and steady posture. Damage to this area is associated with parkinsons disease, which is characterized by jerky movements and uncontrolled resting tremors, among other symptoms. the basal ganglia are also believed to play a role in schizophrenia. within the cerebrum are ventricles filled with cerebrospinal fluid that ultimately flows into the central canal in the middle of the spinal cord. research has linked abnormally enlarged ventricles with symptoms often seen in schizophrenia, including social withdrawal, flat affect, and catatonic states.