Random Flashcards Preview

Nicole mcat > Random > Flashcards

Flashcards in Random Deck (121)
Loading flashcards...
1

IR SPEC

Bond
Frequency
Intensity

C=O 1680-1735 strong

C=C 1680-1620 variable

CtripleC 2260-2100 variable
CtripleN 2260-2220 variable
C-H 3300-2700 variable
N-H 3150-2500 moderate

O-H 3650-3200 broad

2

Skeptic

Person inclined to question or doubt all accepted positions

3

Critic

Expressing unfavorable opinion of something

4

Indubitable

Cannot be doubted, unquestionable

5

Amide

o=CNH2

6

Imine

C=N

7

Object placed in liquid will displace

an equal mass of fluid ( if it floats) and an equal volume (if it sinks)

8

Heat Curve

Since the chart has areas where temp is changing and not changing we need two separate equations. In places on the chart where temp is changing we use q = mcdT (since dT would be non-zero). But if we use the same equation at a phase change point (eg at 0 C where ice melts or vice versa) then dT = 0 and it would indicate that no heat is being transferred. But in order to melt ice heat NEEDS to be transferred to break bonds. It just so happens that they dont change temperature at that phase change. So at those points we use q = mL (or as I like to call it, q = nH since n = moles and H = enthalpy since those are the units you need).

9

Isothermal

no change in temp

10

isobaric

no change in pressure

11

isovolumetric

no change in volume

12

adiabatic

no heat in or out of system

13

VAT

Vf= Vo + at

14

VAX

Vf^2= Vo^2 + 2a delta (x)

15

TAX

delta x= vot + 1/2 at^2

16

Newton SI Unit

kg meters/ seconds squared

17

Electric Field SI Unit

Newton/ Coulomb

18

The Limbic System

Set of structures residing below the cerebrum on either side of the thalamus

19

Parts of the Limbic System

Amygdala (small round structure, signals cortex about stimuli related to attention and emotion Fear - Emotion through interpretation of facial expressions). 2 Thalamus (preliminary sensory processing station and routes info to the cortex and other areas of the brain). Hypothalamus (synthesizes and releases NT, homeostatic and modulates emotion) 4. Hippocampus (LT memory)

20

Formation of Memory Explicit Vs Implicit

Explicit- memory about emotion. Implicit- Emotional Memory

21

Retrieval of Memory Explicit Vs Implicit

Explicit Consious memory of event Implicit- Expression of emotional responses.

22

Prefrontal Cortex

Anterior portion of frontal lobe with planning intricate cognitive functions, expressing personality and making decisions

23

Stress

Challenging events, physical , emotional cognitive and behavioral.

24

Cognitive appraisal, primary and secondary appraisal

Cognitive appraisal is the subjective evaluation of a situation that induces stress. pirmary appraisal = initial evaluation of environment and associated threat. Can be identified as irrelevant, benign, or stressful. If it is a threat then secondary appraisal begins in which we assess if we can cope with the stress

25

Types of stressors

Environment, workplace, social etc. Distressors are unpleasent stressors and Eustress is Positive conditions such as graduating or a high MCAT score

26

Physiological response to stressors

Sympathetic Nervous System. General Adaptation Syndrome is a sequence of physiological resonses in 3 distinct stages (Alarm [initial rxn to a stressor and activation of SNS- could involve hypothalamus to stimulate pituitary to secrete ACTH which acts on adrenal glands- make cortisol. Hypothalamus can also stimulate the adrenal medulla to release epi and norepi to activate SNS]. 2 Resistance- involves continuous release of hormones, SNS engaged to fight teh stressor. 3. Exhaustion- Cant maintain elevated response from SNS))

27

Coping with stress strategies

1 Problem- Focused, working to overcome stressor, making a plan. 2 Emotionally focused- changing feelings about a stressor. Coping can be adaptive (reach out for support) or maladapative ( drugs and alchol).

28

Disaccharides

form as a result of glycosidic bonding between two monosaccharide subunits; polysaccharides form by repeated monosaccharide or polysaccharide glycosidic bonding

29

Common disaccharides

Sucrose ( glucose a 1.2 fructose) Lactose (galactose B 1-4 glucose) Maltose (glucose a 14 glucose)

30

Monosaccharides

single carbohydrate units with glucose as the most commonly observed monomer. they can undergo three main reactions. oxidation reduction, esterification, and glycoside formation.