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Flashcards in Kaplan class Deck (18)
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Independent Variable

Manipulated by experimenter. It is the If part of if-then statement


Dependent Variable

Y axis. It is monitored for change by the experimenter


The Scientific Method

Generate a testable question. Gather data and resources. Form a hypothesis. Collect new data. Analyze the data. Interpret the data and existing hypothesis. Publish. Verify Results.


Is glutamate an excitatory or inhibitory neurotransmitter ?

It is excitatory



Equals the sum of the values in a set divided by the number of values


Whenever you have an equally spaced set (jumping by 1x at every data point)

The average is the middle number and the median is the middle number


Standard deviation

Larger standard deviation means values are more spread out


Standard deviation

Larger standard deviation means values are more spread out. Standard deviation


Type I Error

We reject the null when we should not have


Type II Error

We did not reject when we should have rejected.


Random Error

This is statistical fluctuations in measured data due to the precision limitations of the measurement device. Can be in either direction, skews both ways and affects variance. Can be overcome by increasing the number of data points- for example getting a different result when performing the same task over several trials


Systematic Error

Data Skewed in one direction, a consistent inaccuracy in measured data, it defects the mean and shifts it in only 1 direction


Equipoise (Beneficence)

Start with the assumption that both groups are getting the same exact treatment- placebo vs actual drug. If it becomes totally clear that one treatment is better, we cannot going on pretending both treatments are the same.


Morally Relevant Differences (MRDs)

Not allowed to consider race, ethnicity, sexual orientation or financial status. You are allowed to consider age, population size and religion.


Beneficence/ Nonmaleficence

Actions taken by experimenters must be taken with positive, helpful and achievable goals. In most studies, no harm can be inflicted on participants. In rare cases, minimal harm may be inflicted if the potiantial good far outweighs the harm, and if participants are duly informed and give consent. A study cannot be conducted if the experimenters know one treatment is better than another (or the control) this principle is called equipose.


Selection Bias

Data is consistently skewed in one direction and increasing the sample size doesnt do anything.


P value

Impacts measure of statistical significance, it must be lower than 0.05 to accept data.


Confidence Interval

Allows researchers to estimate population data, needs to be greater than 95%.