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Flashcards in KHAN ACADEMY QUESTIONS Deck (26):

Structural theories of stratification predict that groups with low positions in social hierarchies experience high rates of mental health problems. The “double jeopardy” or “triple jeopardy” hypotheses postulate that groups that are subordinate in multiple stratification systems such as gender, race, and class are especially high risk. These hypotheses best demonstrate which of the following concepts?

Intersectionality- The theory of intersectionality proposes that we need to understand how all these discriminations (double or triple jeopardy) can simultaneously exist.


"The main cause of poverty in society is the lack of marketable skills and knowledge. This is due to educational inequality among different social groups. Therefore, the most effective policy to reduce/eliminate poverty is such a one that aims at providing all social groups with ample educational or training opportunities to acquire marketable skills and knowledge." Which sociological perspective can best support this policy proposal?

Structuralist Perspective--- Therefore, aiming to provide equal education and training opportunities for all social groups (aiming for structural changes), is a structuralist perspective.


The “broken windows hypothesis” describes the norm-setting and signaling effect of urban disorder and vandalism on the exacerbation of other crimes. The hypothesis posits that maintaining and monitoring urban environments to prevent small crimes such as vandalism (breaking windows) or public drinking helps to create an atmosphere of order, and prevents more serious crimes from happening. This exemplifies which of the following theory?

Social disorganization theory states that the conditions of a neighborhood shapes the likelihood that a person in that environment will become involved in street crimes.


Which of the following is the main argument Karl Marx makes for the lack of a proletariat revolution?

Marx believed that workers (the proletariat) would come to realize that capitalists are the source of their oppression.
Hint #2
Marx believed that the workers would unite as the proletariat class and become free of their oppressors.
Hint #3
Marx believed that the workers would seize the means of production and usher in a classless society--where everyone was equal.
Hint #4
Marx argued that what holds back the workers’ unity and revolution is the presence of “false class consciousness”, where workers mistakenly identify with the interests with the capitalists.


Which of the following is NOT an example of the “social disorganization model”?

Learning criminal behavior by observing other people and witnessing the rewards or consequences that their behavior receives is not considered neighborhood, environment, or ecological factors (traits of the social disorganization model).


According to theorist Karl Marx, factory workers are a stratified social class, like cogs in a bigger societal machine. A factory worker loses the ability to determine his/her own destiny, and the ability to own the goods the produce. This concept can be referred to as:

Alienation of Labor


The lack of minorities such as African Americans or Latinos/Latinas among university faculty members is an example of:

Institutional Racism


The belief that poor people develop a unique value structure to deal with their lack of success in society because they are resigned to their lower socio-economic position is referred to as:

This poverty-perpetuating value system is referred to as the culture of poverty.


Macrosociology Vs Microsociology

A macrosociological perspective would describe the big picture interactions between social structures.
Hint #2
A microsociological approach would investigate the interactions between individuals or small groups of individuals.
Hint #3
Functionalism and conflict theory are normally viewed as macrosociological perspectives, while symbolic interactionism is often viewed as a microsociological perspective.


During reading time, students are required to sit quietly and listen attentively to the story the teacher is reading. The children who are able to do this are rewarded at the end of the week with a prize. How would the functionalist perspective describe this interaction?

Latent functions of education are the consequences of a lesson that was not explicitly stated.
Hint #2
Manifest functions of education are the consequences of a lesson that has been intentionally taught, with an intended purpose.
Hint #3
These children are being openly socialized to prepare for later roles in adult life. This is a manifest function of education.


Which of these theorists is NOT associated with conflict theory?

Marx is most often associated with conflict theory and the Communist Manifesto that he coauthored with Fredrick Engles.Hint #2
Marx and Weber agreed that a source of conflict in the capitalist system is economic inequality. They disagreed regarding the outcomes of conflict, however.
Hint #3Gumplowicz expanded on Marx by asserting that civilizations are shaped by war and conquest.
Hint #4 Although Durkheim wrote on conflict, he is most closely associated with the functionalist perspective.


How could a symbolic interactionist phrase a research question to investigate the relationship between medicine and education?

Feminist theory investigates and seeks to understand the mechanisms involved with gender inequity.
Hint #2--Functionalism focuses on social structures and how they interact.
Hint #3--Conflict theory seeks to describe the relationship between unequal access and social tension.
Hint #4--A symbolic interactionist would be interested in the various ways that symbols impact interpretation.
Hint #5
How do the labels a patient applies to the level of education differ between nurse practitioners and doctors?


Which of these accurately describes the perspective of strong social constructionism?

Strong social constructionism rejects brute facts, believing that everything can be explained as an interaction between social constructs.
Hint #2
A criticism of strong social constructionism is the lack of brute facts makes it difficult to explain certain social phenomena, such as acts of nature.
Hint #3
A strong social constructionist would view money as socially constructed, but not as an institutional fact.
Hint #4
Knowledge and language both depend on socially constructed understanding.


Which of these best describes an assumption of exchange theory perspective?

Individuals making rational, self-interested choices is an assumption of exchange theory.
Hint #2
Exchange theory believes that social interactions change over time.
Hint #3
Exchange theory assumes that rewarding actions will be repeated, but the reward diminishes over time.
Hint #4
If a person receives social approval from an action, that action will be repeated.


Sonja’s teacher asked each student his or her favorite color. When Sonja replied that her favorite color was red, her teacher told her that pink was a more appropriate color for a girl to like. What is the term for this form of social reinforcement?

Formal education is the learning of facts and ideas that are intentionally taught.
Hint #2
Gentrification is the forced movement of less affluent members of neighborhoods due to price pressures from urban renovations.
Hint #3
Gender stratification is the unequal access to aspects of society because of gender-based socioeconomic rankings.
Hint #4
The hidden curriculum is the expected social and cultural norms that are taught informally.


Which of these terms describes a couple that lives with or close by to the wife’s family after marriage?

A patrilocal family lives with or near the husband’s family or tribe.
Hint #2
A neolocal family lives away from both of the couples’ families or tribes.
Hint #3
Ambilocality is the custom that the post-marital couple can reside with or near either of the couples’ families or tribes.
Hint #4
A matrilocal family lives near the wife’s family or tribe; matrilocality is the custom of living with or near the wife’s family or tribe.


Which of these would be considered the least socially accepted type of religious organization?

A denomination is a non-state sponsored, large, mainstream religious organization
Hint #2
A sect breaks away from a denomination, often due to doctrinal issues, such as a return to a pure or fundamental version of the denomination.
Hint #3
An ecclesia is religious group that includes most members of a society and is closely affiliated with or holds state or secular power.
Hint #4
A cult is the least socially accepted type of religious organization.


How are the medicalization of deviance and demedicalization related?

Both the medicalization of deviance and demedicalization are processes within the theory of symbolic interactionism.
Hint #2--Demedicalization assigns new meanings to a behavior, which was judged to be ‘sick’ or related to the appropriate behavior for someone who is sick, but is now judged to be normal.
Hint #3--An example of the medicalization of deviance is the treatment of cocaine addiction. Early in the 20th century, cocaine addiction was defined as a deviant behavior. Today, addiction is viewed as a mental disorder and a disease.
Hint #4--The medicalization of deviance is the process of changing a ‘bad’ behavior into a ‘sick’ behavior. Conversely, demedicalization is the normalization of a ‘sick’ behavior.


Which of these statements is a criticism of the perspective of relative deprivation theory?

Relative deprivation theory studies the differences between perceived and actual reality.
Hint #2
The mass society theory views social movements as irrational and suspicious.
Hint #3
A feeling of having exhausted all conventional means to address the deprivation is an assumption made by relative deprivation theory.
Hint #4
Exchange theory explains social interactions by the comparison of costs and benefits.
Hint #5
People may not choose to join a social movement because of lack of resources.


What is the difference between periphery and semi-periphery countries?

An underground economy is a market that is not regulated, taxed, or protected by the government
Hint #2
A periphery country will have a weak central government and an economy based mostly on raw materials and unskilled production of goods.
Hint #3
A semi-periphery country has a stable government and a diversified economy, but lacks global economic or political influence.
Hint #4
Periphery countries have a weak central government with little industrialization, while semi-periphery countries often have a stable government and an expanding middle class.


Which of these groups would be considered an age cohort?

An age cohort must be taken from the same generation.
Hint #2
A generation needs three common aspects: a sociocultural location or common experiences, a temporal location (20 to 25 years in length per generation), and a historical location or commonality of era.
Hint #3
It is unclear that the entire group of 70 to 80 year old men shared any common experiences.
Hint #4
A group of children, all of whom are being breastfed until age 2.


Which of these statements is the correct definition for discrimination based on one’s ethnicity?

One’s ethnicity is defined socially, by cultural characteristics.
Hint #2
Prejudice is a prejudgment based on thoughts or feelings about a group, rather than personal experience.
Hint #3
A stereotype is an oversimplified idea or belief about a specific group of people.
Hint #4
Discrimination is biased action against a person or group of people.
Hint #5
A biased action against a group of people based on socially defined cultural characteristics.


How does mass society theory describe social movements?

Mass society theory does not view social movements as being organized or rational.
Hint #2
Mass society theory refers to social movements as being created with suspect intentions.
Hint #3
Social movements are dangerous, dysfunctional, irrational, and motivated by suspicious intentions.


Rural vs Urban area population size

Rural is less than 2500 residents while Urban is greater than 2500 residents


How would the hyperglobalist perspective describe the impact of globalization?

A negative perspective would highlight inequities, social unrest, and conflict that arise from globalization
Hint #2
A positive perspective would highlight issues such as a global rise in standard of living.
Hint #3
A transformationalist perspective views the world order imposed by globalization as dynamic, influenced by many factors, and therefore unable to be described adequately.
Hint #4
A hyperglobalist would view globalization as being driven by a legitimate process.


Japan’s population is aging. In 2014, more than 25% of Japan’s population was 65 years or older. As the dependency ratio increases, how could age stratification theory describe the conflict between age cohorts for social resources?

Activity theory is concerned with the replacement of certain jobs and activities, lost due to an aging population.
Hint #2
Disengagement theory examines the self-reflection that occurs as one ages and how aging causes a separation of society.
Hint #3
Continuity theory attempts to understand the choices one makes to maintain consistency in social roles as one ages.
Hint #4
Age stratification theory describes how the age of a generation regulates that generation’s behavior.
Hint #5
The loss of social resources as one ages regulates conflict between age cohorts.