Flashcards in Immune system Ch 15 Deck (46):
Functions to protect the body from harmful substances and utilizes other systems to maintain its functions
exemption (implies exempt from or protected from foreign substances)
The study of the immune system
A type of white blood cell that is involved in the immune response and works against specific antigens
A type of lymphocyte (white blood cell) that are responsible for cell mediated immunity
A type of lymphocyte (white blood cell) that are responsible for humoral immunity. In the presense of a specific antigen, they diferenciate into plasma and memory B cells
Memory B cells
Type of B lymphocyte that remember a specific antigen and stimulate a faster and more intense response when the same antigen is presented in the body
Plasma Cell or plasmocytes
An immune cell that produces and secretes a specific antibody for a specific antigen
Antibodies made by plasma cells. There are five distinct immunoglobulins.
A type of immunoglobulin found in the mucous membrane lining of the intestines and the bronchi, and secretions such as saliva, sweat and tears; protects those areas by preventing attachment of bacteria and viruses to the epithelial surfaces that line most organs
A type of immunoglobulin found large amounts on the surface of B cells; unknown function but is important in B cell activation
A type of immunoglobulin found bound to mast cells in lungs, skin, and cells of the mucous membranes; provides defense against the environment and is involved in allergic reactions
A type of immunoglobulin found in blood stream, interstitial fluid (tissue), and lymph (lymph vessels); synthesized in response to invading germs such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses; most abundant antibody and only class that can cross the placenta; found in high concentrations in colostrum of lg domestic species (horse, cattle, pigs)
A type of immunoglobulin found in circulating fluid(due to its size it cannot exit the blood stream); first immunoglobulin produced in response to an initial exposure to an antigen; invades and provides protection in the earliest stages of infection.
Small circulating lymphocytes produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus, hence the name T cells. Their function is to coordinate immune defenses and kill organisms on contact
Cell-mediated Immunity (not book vocab)
Involves T cell activation and cellular secretions.It doesn't involve antibody production but the antibodies produced during humoral immunity may play a role in some cell-mediated responses.
Helper T cells (also known as CD4 cells)
T lymphocytes that secrete substances, such as cytokines, that stimulate the production of B lymphocytes and cytotoxic T cells.
Cytotoxic T cells (also known as CD8 cells)
T lymphocytes that destroy intracellular pathogens
Suppressor T cells
T lymphocytes that stop B and T lymphocyte activity when this activity is no longer needed
Memory T cells
remember a specific antigen and stimulate a faster and more intense response when that same antigen is presented to the body
A leukocyte formed in bone marrow and transported to other parts of the body. They migrate to tissues such as the spleen to become macrophages.
Phagocytic cell that protects the body by engulfing invading cells and by interacting with other cells of the immune system.
Large macrophages found in loose connective tissue
Having no cuts, scrapes, openings or alterations
The compliment system
a nonspecific defense mechanism, and its activation can result in initiation of inflammation, activation of leukocytes, lysis of pathogens, and increased phagocytes
Series of enzymatic proteins that are continually present in normal plasma and aids phagocytes in destroying antigens and cause cell lysis
The immune response is directed against a 'specific' antigen
Helps the immune system recognize a antigen it has been previously exposed to and allows the body to quickly respond to that antigen
Helps the immune system differentiate between "self" and ""non-self"
State of being resistant to a specific disease
Naturally acquired passive immunity
Resistance to a specific infection by the passing of protection from mother to offspring before birth or through colostrum
Naturally acquired active immunity
Resistance to a specific infection after the development of antibodies during the actual disease
Artificially acquired passive immunity
Resistance to a specific infection by receiving antiserum-containing antibodies from another host
Artificially acquired active immunity
Resistance to a specific infection through vaccination
Resistance of a group (herd) to a microbe/infection b/c large proportion of the group's members are immune.
Genetic transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring
innate Immunity or inherent/genetic immunity
Immunity determined by genetic makeup of an individual (example: dogs do not get HIV infection due to innate immunity)
Able to cause disease (due to debilitation or alteration of the animal) when disease normally would no be produced (example: a microbe is able to cause disease b/c it is given an 'opportunity' when the population of normal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract is altered)
Quantity of a substance required to react with a given amount of another substance
Measures the concentration of antibodies circulating in the bloodstream of an animal (rising antibody titer usually indicates the the animals response to antigens associated with an active infection)
Vaccination or immunization
Administration of an antigen (vaccine) to stimulate protective immune response against a specific infectious agent.