Immune system Ch 15 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Immune system Ch 15 Deck (46):
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Immune system

Functions to protect the body from harmful substances and utilizes other systems to maintain its functions

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Immunity

exemption (implies exempt from or protected from foreign substances)

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Immun/o

Protected

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Immunology

The study of the immune system

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Lymphocyte

A type of white blood cell that is involved in the immune response and works against specific antigens

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T Lymphocyte

A type of lymphocyte (white blood cell) that are responsible for cell mediated immunity

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B Lymphocyte

A type of lymphocyte (white blood cell) that are responsible for humoral immunity. In the presense of a specific antigen, they diferenciate into plasma and memory B cells

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Memory B cells

Type of B lymphocyte that remember a specific antigen and stimulate a faster and more intense response when the same antigen is presented in the body

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Plasma Cell or plasmocytes

An immune cell that produces and secretes a specific antibody for a specific antigen

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Immunoglobulins (Ig)

Antibodies made by plasma cells. There are five distinct immunoglobulins.

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IgA

A type of immunoglobulin found in the mucous membrane lining of the intestines and the bronchi, and secretions such as saliva, sweat and tears; protects those areas by preventing attachment of bacteria and viruses to the epithelial surfaces that line most organs

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IgD

A type of immunoglobulin found large amounts on the surface of B cells; unknown function but is important in B cell activation

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IgE

A type of immunoglobulin found bound to mast cells in lungs, skin, and cells of the mucous membranes; provides defense against the environment and is involved in allergic reactions

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IgG

A type of immunoglobulin found in blood stream, interstitial fluid (tissue), and lymph (lymph vessels); synthesized in response to invading germs such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses; most abundant antibody and only class that can cross the placenta; found in high concentrations in colostrum of lg domestic species (horse, cattle, pigs)

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IgM

A type of immunoglobulin found in circulating fluid(due to its size it cannot exit the blood stream); first immunoglobulin produced in response to an initial exposure to an antigen; invades and provides protection in the earliest stages of infection.

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T lymphocytes

Small circulating lymphocytes produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus, hence the name T cells. Their function is to coordinate immune defenses and kill organisms on contact

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Cell-mediated Immunity (not book vocab)

Involves T cell activation and cellular secretions.It doesn't involve antibody production but the antibodies produced during humoral immunity may play a role in some cell-mediated responses.

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Helper T cells (also known as CD4 cells)

T lymphocytes that secrete substances, such as cytokines, that stimulate the production of B lymphocytes and cytotoxic T cells.

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Cytotoxic T cells (also known as CD8 cells)

T lymphocytes that destroy intracellular pathogens

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Suppressor T cells

T lymphocytes that stop B and T lymphocyte activity when this activity is no longer needed

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Memory T cells

remember a specific antigen and stimulate a faster and more intense response when that same antigen is presented to the body

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Monocytes

A leukocyte formed in bone marrow and transported to other parts of the body. They migrate to tissues such as the spleen to become macrophages.

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Macrophage

Phagocytic cell that protects the body by engulfing invading cells and by interacting with other cells of the immune system.

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Histiocytes

Large macrophages found in loose connective tissue

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Intact

Having no cuts, scrapes, openings or alterations

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The compliment system

a nonspecific defense mechanism, and its activation can result in initiation of inflammation, activation of leukocytes, lysis of pathogens, and increased phagocytes

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Compliment

Series of enzymatic proteins that are continually present in normal plasma and aids phagocytes in destroying antigens and cause cell lysis

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Specific immunity

The immune response is directed against a 'specific' antigen

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Memory immunity

Helps the immune system recognize a antigen it has been previously exposed to and allows the body to quickly respond to that antigen

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Discrimination Immunity

Helps the immune system differentiate between "self" and ""non-self"

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Immunity

State of being resistant to a specific disease

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Naturally acquired passive immunity

Resistance to a specific infection by the passing of protection from mother to offspring before birth or through colostrum

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mut/a

genetic change

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Naturally acquired active immunity

Resistance to a specific infection after the development of antibodies during the actual disease

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Artificially acquired passive immunity

Resistance to a specific infection by receiving antiserum-containing antibodies from another host

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Artificially acquired active immunity

Resistance to a specific infection through vaccination

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herd immunity

Resistance of a group (herd) to a microbe/infection b/c large proportion of the group's members are immune.

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Debilitated

Weakened

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Heredity

Genetic transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring

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innate Immunity or inherent/genetic immunity

Immunity determined by genetic makeup of an individual (example: dogs do not get HIV infection due to innate immunity)

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Opportunistic

Able to cause disease (due to debilitation or alteration of the animal) when disease normally would no be produced (example: a microbe is able to cause disease b/c it is given an 'opportunity' when the population of normal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract is altered)

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Resistant

Not susceptible

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Titer

Quantity of a substance required to react with a given amount of another substance

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Antibody titer

Measures the concentration of antibodies circulating in the bloodstream of an animal (rising antibody titer usually indicates the the animals response to antigens associated with an active infection)

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Vaccination or immunization

Administration of an antigen (vaccine) to stimulate protective immune response against a specific infectious agent.

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Vaccine

Preparation of pathogen (live, weakened or killed) or a portion of pathogen that is administered to stimulate a protective immune response against a pathogen.

Decks in Veterinary Medical Terminology Class (72):