The Appendicular Skeleton Ch 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Appendicular Skeleton Ch 3 Deck (64):
1

The appendicular Skeleton

Composed of the bones of the limbs

2

Scapula (shoulder blade)

A large triangular bone on the side of the thorax

3

Clavicle (collar bone)

A slender bone that connects the sternum to the scapula

4

Vestigial or Rudimentary Clavicle

Degenerate, atrophied or undeveloped collar bone

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What species don't have clavicles?

swine, ruminants and equine

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Humerus (Brachium)

The long bone of the proximal front limb

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Antebrachium

The region of the radius and the ulna

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Ante

Before

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Radius

The cranial bone of the front limb

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Ulna

The caudal bone of the front limb

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Olecranon

The proximal projection of the ulna that forms the point of the elbow (some species have a fused radius and ulna

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Carpal Bones

Irregularly shaped bones in the area known as the wrist in people

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Carpus

The joint in the area known as the wrist in people (in small animals)

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Knee

The joint in the area known as the wrist in people (in large animals)

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Metacarpals

Bones found distal to the carpus (Identified by numbers from medial to lateral)

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Meta

beyond

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Splint bones

When metacarpals (and metatarsals) II and IV do not articulate (connect) with the phalanges (in horses)

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Interosseous Ligament

The ligament that attaches the splint bones to the large third metacarpal (or metatarsal) bone (the cannon bone)

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Cannon Bone

The large third metacarpal (or metatarsal) bone

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Ruminant

An animal (such as a cow or sheep) that has more than one stomach and that swallows food and then brings it back up again to continue chewing it

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Phalanges

The bones of the digit (numbered from proximal to distal). Plural form of phalanx

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Phalanx

One bone of the digit (Digit 1)

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Digits

The bones analogous (related or similar) to the human finger and vary in number in animals. Cloven-hoofed animals, such as ruminants or swine, have 3 phalanges in their digits with the distal-most (p3) encased in the hoof. Equine species have one digit (digit III). Within that digit are 3 phalanges.

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Dewclaw

Digit 1 of the dog

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Ungulates (uhng-yoo-latz)

Animals with hooves

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Dewclaws of ungulates

The vestigial digits of the cloven hoofed animals. Animals with cloven, or split hoof, have digits III and IV and digits II and V are vestigial.

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Fetlock Joint

The joint between metacarpal (metatarsal) III and the proximal phalanx

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Pastern Joint

The joint between P1 and P2

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Coffin Joint

The joint between P2 and P3

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Long pastern bone

The common name for P1 (Phalangeal bone 1) in livestock

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Short pastern bone

The common name for P2 (Phalangeal bone 2) in livestock

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Coffin Bone

The common name for P3 (Phalangeal bone 3) in livestock

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Claw

Phalanx 3 in non-hooved animals

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Onych/o (combining form)

Claw

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Onychectomy

In cats, a surgical procedure to remove the claws (declaw)

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Sesamoid Bones

Small nodular bones embedded in a tendon or joint capsule

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Navicular Bone

Common name for the sesamoid bone in horses located inside the hoof on the palmar or plantar surface of P3

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Pelvis (hip)

Consists of three pairs of bones: ilium, ischium, and pubis

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Ilium

The largest pair and is blade shaped bone of the pelvis

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Sacroiliac Joint

Found in the pelvis and formed by the ilium articulating with the sacrum

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Ischium (ish-ke-uhm)

The caudal pair of bones in the Pelvis

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Pubis

The ventral pair of bones that are fused on midline by a cartilaginous joint on the pelvic bone

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Pubic symphysis

Cartilaginous (cart-til-i-jin-ous) joint that fuses the two the ventral pair on bones (the pubic bones) called the pubis together - crotch

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Acetabulum (ass-eh-tab-bule-um)

The large socket of the pelvic bone that forms where the three bones meet - ilium, ischium, and the pubis (head of the femur) Forms the ball and socket joint with the femur

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Hooks and pins (in cattle)

Points of the ilium and ischium

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Femur (or thigh bone)

The proximal long bone of the rear leg

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Femoral Head (head of the femur)

Connected to a narrow area called the femoral neck

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Femoral Neck

A proximal part of the femur (a narrow area below the head of the femur)

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Trochanter (s)

Large, flat, broad projections on a bone

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Condyle (s)

Rounded projection

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Patella (knee cap)

A large sesamoid bone in the rear limb

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Knee

The joint between the femur and tibia (NOT A BONE)

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Stifle Joint

The joint that houses the patella

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Popliteal (pop-lit-e-a-l)

Sesamoid bone is the rear limb and on the caudal surface of the stifle

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Tibia

One of the distal long bones of the rear limb. Of the two distal long bones it is more weight bearing

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Fibula

Long slender bone (distal long bone)

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Crus

The area of the limb between the stifle and hock (lower leg)

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Tarsal Bones

Irregularly shaped bones found in the ankle area

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Tarsus / Hock (joint)

The area known as the ankle in people which includes the tarsals.
Tarsus = small animal (joint)
Hock = large animals (joint)

60

Talus

One of the tarsal bones. Shorter medial bone located in the proximal row of tarsals

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Calcaneus (cal-kay.knee-us)

The long, lateral tarsal bone located in the proximal row of tarsal bones

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metacarpals

Front ankle part

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Metatarsals

Back ankle part

64

Vertebral Formulas for species

Dogs and cats: C=7, T=13, L=7, S=3, Cy=6-23
Equine: C=7, T=18, L=6 (or L=5 in weird arabians) S=5, Cy=15-21
Bovine: C=7, T=13, L=6, S=5, Cy=18-20
Pigs: C=7, T=14-15, L=6-7, S=4, Cy=20-23
Sheep and goats: C=7, T=13, L=6-7, S=4, Cy=16-18
Chicken: C=14, T=7, LS=14, Cy=6 (lumbar and sacral are fused)

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