Flashcards in Immunocompromise III Deck (18):
What form of infx are patients who are deficient in immunoglobulin prone to? (esp IgG deficiency)
-pneumococcal (S. pneumoniae)
What types of infections are people with cell-mediated immunocompromise most at risk for?
what is the innate immune system designed to protect the host from mostly?
what is the adaptive immune system designed to protect the host against mostly?
the macrobiome (exogenous pathogens):
What do Igs protect the following from:
-Respiratory tract: pneumococcal infections
-GI tract: Giardia (parasite), Campylobacter (bacterium) and enteroviruses
-Skin: Group A Strep and Staphylococcal infections
What is more common: hypogammaglobulinoemia (deficient in all Igs) or dysgammaglobulinoemia (deficient in some Igs)?
-hypogammaglobulinoemia (all Igs)
List the acquired causes for Ig deficiency:
-nephrotic syndrome (due to renal loss)
-malabsorption or protein-losing enteropathy (due to GI)
-chronic lymphocytic leukoemia (CLL)
What bacterial condition occurs in patients with cirrhosis (due to portal HTN and 'lack of flow' and lack of Igs in ascitic fluid)?
'spontaneous bacterial peritonitis'
What infections are patients with untreated CLL at risk of (due to Ig deficiency)?
-bacteroemia (due to encapsulated organisms)
What immune role does the spleen play?
-clearing encapsulated bacteria
What types of asplenia are there?
-functional (from Sickle Cell Disease)--> Howell-Jolly and Heinz bodies
What are patients with asplenia at greatest risk for?
Which patients is the risk highest in?
What is the most likely causal pathogen?
OPSI: Overwhelming Post-Splenectomy Infection
highest risk: children esp with HbSS blood type.
S. pneumoniae (followed by N. meningitidis)
Besides OPSI, what infections are asplenic patients at risk of?
-Capnocytophaga canimorsus (dog bites)
List some opportunistic viruses that cause caner and those that are community-acquired.
herpesviruses and papillomaviruses can cause reactivation/cancer
-other CA viruses cauding OIs: influenza, hepatitis C
List bacteria that cause OIs:
-mycobacteria : TB, MAI
List fungi causing OIs:
List protozoa causing OIs: