Immunocompromise III Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Immunocompromise III Deck (18):
1

What form of infx are patients who are deficient in immunoglobulin prone to? (esp IgG deficiency)

-pneumococcal (S. pneumoniae)

2

What types of infections are people with cell-mediated immunocompromise most at risk for?

-viruses
-mycobacteria
-fungi
-protozoa

3

what is the innate immune system designed to protect the host from mostly?

the microbiome.

4

what is the adaptive immune system designed to protect the host against mostly?

the macrobiome (exogenous pathogens):

-viruses
-non-colonizing bacteria
-non-colonizing fungi
-parasites

5

What do Igs protect the following from:

-Respiratory tract
-GI tract
-Skin


-Respiratory tract: pneumococcal infections

-GI tract: Giardia (parasite), Campylobacter (bacterium) and enteroviruses

-Skin: Group A Strep and Staphylococcal infections

6

What is more common: hypogammaglobulinoemia (deficient in all Igs) or dysgammaglobulinoemia (deficient in some Igs)?

-hypogammaglobulinoemia (all Igs)

7

List the acquired causes for Ig deficiency:

-nephrotic syndrome (due to renal loss)

-malabsorption or protein-losing enteropathy (due to GI)

-chronic lymphocytic leukoemia (CLL)

8

What bacterial condition occurs in patients with cirrhosis (due to portal HTN and 'lack of flow' and lack of Igs in ascitic fluid)?

'spontaneous bacterial peritonitis'

9

What infections are patients with untreated CLL at risk of (due to Ig deficiency)?

-sinus infx
-respiratory infx
-bacteroemia (due to encapsulated organisms)

10

What immune role does the spleen play?

-clearing encapsulated bacteria

11

What types of asplenia are there?

-surgical

-functional (from Sickle Cell Disease)--> Howell-Jolly and Heinz bodies

12

What are patients with asplenia at greatest risk for?

Which patients is the risk highest in?

What is the most likely causal pathogen?

OPSI: Overwhelming Post-Splenectomy Infection

highest risk: children esp with HbSS blood type.

S. pneumoniae (followed by N. meningitidis)

13

Besides OPSI, what infections are asplenic patients at risk of?

-Babesia
-Malaria
-Capnocytophaga canimorsus (dog bites)

14

List some opportunistic viruses that cause caner and those that are community-acquired.

herpesviruses and papillomaviruses can cause reactivation/cancer

-other CA viruses cauding OIs: influenza, hepatitis C

15

List bacteria that cause OIs:

-mycobacteria : TB, MAI

16

List fungi causing OIs:

-mucosal candidiasis
-pneuocystic jiroveccii
-dimorphic fungi

17

List protozoa causing OIs:

-toxoplasma
-intestinal protozoa

18

what are the most common causes of HIV-associated immunosuppression?

what else are they at risk for?

reactivation of latent viruses (and their associated cancers)

also: fungi, mycobacteria, protozoa infx