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Flashcards in The Pneumonia Syndrome Deck (11):
1

What are the 3 main pathogeneses of penumonia?

1. aspiration

2. inhalation

3. hematogenous

2

what are the 4 main pulmonary defense mechanisms?

1. nasal filtration
2. upper airway reflexes
3. mucociliary funx
4. alveolar macrophages/IgA/C'

3

What are the major pathogens causing pneumonia in children (highest to lowest prevalence):

-respiratory syncytial virus
-parainfluenza virus
-influenza A
-mycoplasma pneumoniae
-S. pneumoniae
-S. aureus
-H. influenzae

4

List the hospital acquired causes of pneumonia (pathogens) in order of most to least prevalent:

GN bacilli:
-Ecoli, Klebsiella
-P. aeruginosa

other GNB:
-S. aureus
-S. pneumoniae
-H. influenzae
-Legionella

5

What 3 pathogens have caused pneumonia epidemics in the past?

1. Respiratory viruses

2. Mycoplasma pneumoniae

3. Legionella

6

What are the major 'respiratory viruses':

-Influenza A,B
-Parainfluenza virus
-Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
-Human metapneumovirus (hMPV)
-Coronavirus, rhinovirus
-Adenovirus

7

What are the Sx of pneumonia?

What are the physical findings of pneumonia?

Sx: fever, chills, cough, sputum, pleuritic chest pain, dyspnea

Physical: fever, tachypnea (RR >20/min), crepitations/rales, bronchial breathing

8

What are the major complications of pneumonia?

-lung abscess
-empyema, pleural effusion
-bacteremia, metastatic infection

9

What diagnostic tests are used for the following pathogens:
1. Resp. viruses

2. Mycoplasma

3. Legionella

1. Resp virus: Nasopharyngeal swab, PCR

2. Mycoplamsa: Nasopharyngeal swab, PCR

3. Legionella: culture, urinary antigen serology, PCR

10

What is the Rx for pneumonia?

1. Supportive therapy
-oxygenation
-hydration

2. Antimicrobial therapy

11

How can we best prevent pneumonia?

1. Influenza vaccine

2. Pneumococcal vaccine