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Flashcards in Introduction to Bacteriology II: Deck (17):
1

List the following related to Staphylococcus aureus:
-description:
-reservoir:
mode of transmission:
-virulence factors:

-desc: GP, cocci, aerobic, clusters

-reservoir: skin (axillae, perineum), nares

-mode of transmission: contact

-virulence factors: adhesin, protein A, capsule, leukocidin, hemolysin, catalase, DNAse, hyaluronidase, exotoxins: toxic shock syndrome toxin, exfoliatin, enterotoxin

2

Describe the spectrum of disease for Staph aureus:

Diverse:
-skin and soft tissue infx (abscesses)
-bacteremia
-endocarditis
-pneumonia
-staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome
-staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome
-food poisoning

3

Describe the following for Coagulase-negative staphylococci:

-most common species:
-description:
-reservoir:
-mode of transmission:
-virulence factors:
-spectrum of disease:

-commonly: S epidermidis

-desc: GP, cocci, clusters

-reservoir: skin

-mode of transmission: contact

-virulence factors: adhesin, capsule, biofilm

-spectrum of disease: bacteremia (catheter-associated), endocarditis (prosthetic-valve), prosthetic infections

4

List 2 coagulase-negative GP bacteria:

1. Staphylococcus lugdunensis (similar to S aureus though)
-disease: skin + soft tissue infx/abscesses
-bacteremia, endocarditis, osteomyelitis

2. Staphylococcus saprophyticus
-causes UTIs mostly

5

Describe the following for Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A strep):
-description:
-reservoir:
-mode of transmission:
-virulence factors:

-desc: GP, cocci, chains

-reservoir: skin, pharynx

-mode of transmission: contact, droplet

-virulence fx: adhesin, M protein, capsule, hemolysins, hyaluronidase, streptokinase, streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (SPEs)

6

Describe the spectrum of disease for Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A strep):

-pharyngitis: quinsy (tonsilar abscess)

-skin and soft tissue infx: impetigo, erysipelas, cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis

-bacteremia

-TSS

-Septic arthritis

-Non-suppurative (rheumatic fever, glomerulonephritis)--> due to cross reactive Abs raised

7

Describe the following for Streptococcus pneumoniae:

-description:
-reservoir
-mode of transmission
-virulence factors
-spectrum of disease:

-desc: GP, diplococci

-reservoir: oral-pharyngeal flora

-mode of transmission: droplet, contact

-virulence fx: capsule, autolysin, pneumolysin, protein A

-Spectrum of disease:
pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media, meningitis, bacteremia

8

What are the two most important species of Enterococcus?

1. E. faecium
2. E. faecalis

9

Describe the following for Enterococcus spp. (E. faecium, E. faecalis):

-description
-reservoir
-mode of transmission
-virulence fx
-spectrum of disease

-desc: GP, cocci, chains

-reservoir: GI tract

-mode of transmission: contact

-virulence fx: adhesin, hemolysin (some)

-spectrum of disease: UTI, intra-abdominal infx

10

Describe the following for Escherichia coli:

-descrip
-reservoir
-mode of tx
-virulence fx
-spectrum of disease

desc: GN, bacilli, aerobic

reservoir: GI tract

MoT: contact

VF: fimbriae, hemolysin, flagella, cytotoxin, enterotoxin

Disease: UTI, hospital-acquired pneumonia, intra-abdominal infx, gastroenteritis, hemolytic uremic syndrome

11

List the enteric pathogens and describe them, their reservoir and MoT:

1. Enteric pathogens include:
-enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)
-enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC- O157:H7)
-Salmonella spp
-Shigella spp
-Campylobacter spp (curved*)
-Yersinia enterocolitica

2. desc: GN bacilli

3. reservoir: GI tract

4. MoT: contact

12

What are the virulence fx and spectrum of disease for the enteric pathogens (GN bacilli)?

VF: enterotoxin, cytotoxin

SoD:
-gastroenteritis: water diarrhea (ETEC), bloody diarrhea (others)
-Hemolytic uremic syndrome (E coli 0157:H7)
-Bacteremia

13

List the following for Neisseria meningiditis:
-desc
-Res
-MoT
-VF
-SoD

-desc: GN diplococci

-res: oral pharynx

-MoT: contact, droplet

-VF: capsule, IgA protease, endotoxin

-SoD: meningitis, meningococcemia (skin)

14

Describe Neisseria gonorrhoeae:
desc, res, MoT, VF, SoD

desc: GN diplococci

res: genital tract

MoT: contact

VF: pili, antigenic variation, IgA protease

SoD: cervicitis, urethritis, pharyngitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, disseminated gonococcemia

15

Describe Chlamydia trachomatis: desc, res, MoT, VF, SoD

-desc: intracellular pathogen

-res: genital tract

-MoT: contact

-VF: intracellular survival

-SoD: cervicitis, urethritis, pelvic inflammatory disease

16

List the following for Clostridium spp. :

-Desc
-Res
-MoT
-VF
-SoD

-desc: GP bacilli (anaerobic)

res: soil (C. tetani, C. botulinum , C. perfringens), hospital/GI tract (C. difficile)

-MoT: contact

VF: spores, exotoxins

SoD:
-Tetanus: C. tetani, neurotoxin
-Botulism: C. botulinum, neurotoxin
-Gas gangrene: C. perfringens, lecithinase
-Diarrhea (C. difficile, toxin A and B)

17

List the following for Bacteroides spp.:

-desc
-res
-MoT
-VF
-SoD

-desc: GN bacilli (anaerobic)

-res: GI tract

-MoT: contact

-VF: lipase, protease, capsule

-SoD: intrabdominal abscesses, bacteremia