Parasitology: Protozoa Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Parasitology: Protozoa Deck (19):
1

What are the 4 classes of protozoa?

1. Amoebae (pseudopodia)
2. Flagellates (flagella)
3. Ciliates (cilia)
4. Apicomplexans (gliding)

2

Describe the life cycle of Entamoeba histolytica:

protozoa, fecal-oral, DIRECT

3

What are the 5 means of damage to the host by protozoa? Give examples.

1. Mechanical (Giardia-barrier to fat absorption, Plasmodium)

2. Competition for host resources (Plasmodium- glucose)

3. Cytotoxicity (Entomoeba histolytica- releases liver enzymes that degrade liver)

4. Inflammation (Plasmodium- cytokines)

5. Inflammation (Leishmania- Th mediated damage)

4

What do Giardia do to harm the host?

prevent absorption of nutrients--> diarrhea

5

How does Entomoeba histolytica harm host?

Liver abscesses --> cytotoxicity to liver, chews through liver by releasing enzymes

6

What tests are done to confirm protozoa infection?

1. direct examination (Stool protozoa, Plasmodium)

2. Culture (Leishmania)

3. Antigen detection (Plasmodium-RDT, E. hystolitica)

4. Host antibody detection (E. histolytica, Trypnasomes)

5. Nucleic acid amplification (blood and tissue protozoa)

6. Radiologic (amoebic liver abscess)

7

What are the medical treatments for protozoa infection?

1. Antibiotics (giardia, plasmodium-doxycyclin)

2. Antifungals (Leishmania- azoles, flucanazol)

3. Conventional anti-parasitics (all protzoa)

4. Herbs/plant extracts (Plasmodium)

5. Elements (Leishmania)

8

What are the international treatments for protozoa infection?

Percutaneous drainage (entamoeba histolytica abscess)

9

What is the life cycle of Leishmania?

Protozoa, vector-borne, INDIRECT (sandfly)

10

What is the clinical correlate of Leishmania?

skin ulcer (really bad to face!)

11

Where are oligoparasitic protozoa found?

Where are polyparasitic protozoa found?

-Oligoparasitic: mucocutaneous, cutaneous (CMI inc)

-Polyparasitic: diffuse cutaneous, visceral (Ab inc)

12

What is the main cause of tissue injury in Leishmaniasis?

host-parasite interaction: IMMUNE mediated injury

13

What is the 1st line therapy for Leishmaniasis?

Antimony (Sb, element)

Toxic! (cardiotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, haemotoxic, toxic to pancreas)

14

What are the 4 main Rx for Leishmaniasis?

-ABs: Azithromycin, Paromomycin

-Antifungals: Flucanazole, Amphotericin

-Herbs/Plant: Garlic

-Elements: Pentavalent Antimony

15

What is the life cycle of Malaria?

protozoa, vector-borne, INDIRECT

16

How does P. Falciparum (malaria) cause host damage?

Obstruction of capillaries

17

How is Malaria diagnosed?

-direct examination of blood film

-antigen detection: RDT= rapid diagnostic test

-nucleic acid amplification (PCR)

18

How is Malaria caused by Plasmodium treated?

-ABs: Doxycycline, Clindamycin

-Conventional Antiparasitics: Chloroquine, Mefloquine (erythrocyte cycle)

-Herbs/Plants: Artemisinin, Quinine

19

How is Malaria caused by P. ovale treated?

-Blood Schizonticide: Chloroquine, Atovaquone-Proguanil

-Tissue Schizontocide: Primaquine (radical cure)