Immunology Flashcards Preview

Nursing > Immunology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immunology Deck (38):
1

characteristics of lymphatic vessels

open ended
1 cell thick
flow reliant on pumps and valves

2

2 primary functions

1) maintain fluid balance
2) active role in immunity

3

problem with vessels

often results in oedema and being immunocompromised

4

composed of

lymph, nodes, lymphatic tissues

5

what are lacteals

specialised lymphatic groups located in the intestinal wall

6

lymph

mainly plasma water
- lower percentage dissolved proteins (albumin) than plasma
- higher protein in thoracic duct (from liver and SI)

7

tonsils

palatine, pharyngeal, lingual
1st line defence
contains T/B cells

8

thymus gland

regresses with age
- source of lymphocytes before birth
responsible for maturation of T cells

9

Spleen

defence→prod macrophages
- haemotopoiesis (RBC prod) and erythropoiesis (WBC prod)
- blood reservoir - stores platelets & prod RBC

10

lymph nodes

- lymph filtered through nodes
- defence → mechanical (trap pathogens) and biological (phagocytosis)
- haematopoiesis

11

innate immunity

1st line: external mechanical/chemical

2nd line: internal: phagocytes, macrophages, WBC...

12

acquired immunity

3rd line
- natural/artificial
active→T/B cells
passive→AB prod outside body (transfer from mom to child)

Req 2 activating signals: specific antigens and chemicals

13

immediate vascular effects of inflammation

1) vessels constrict (decrease blood loss) → then dilate (increase BF to start healing)

2) blood becomes thicker

3) endothelial cells contract → increase permeability → release chemical mediators

4) leukocytes attracted via:
a) margination/pavementing
b) diapedesis (movement of WBC to surrounding tissues)
c) chemotaxis

14

granulocytes

1) neutrophil (1st line of response to insult)
2) eosinophils (active only in parasitic infections→too large to engulf)
3) basophils (secrete chemotatic factors for neutrophils - more involved in allergic reactions)

15

NK cells

larger granular lymphocytes

16

monocytes/macrophages

immature form of WBC→released by neutrophils

17

platelets (thrombocytes)

interacts with components of coagulation cascade

18

kinins

released by damaged cells
- increased permeability activates nociceptors, induce chemotaxis of WBC

19

histamine & PG

attracts neutrophils, activates nociceptors

20

interferons

good against viruses

21

c-reactive protein (CRP)

protein made by liver (result of TNF)
good of opsonisation

22

clonal diversity

selection/differentiation into T/B cells
- lymphoid SC goes to:
1) thymus → T cells → spleen
2) bone marrow → b cells → lymph nodes
- both prod. Th cells

23

T cells

prolif in thymus
antigen R on surface
- known as cell-mediated immunity

24

cytotoxic T

target and destro foreign antigen

25

helper T

stimulates cytokines → recruits B, cyto T, phagocytes, leukocytes

26

T regulatory/suppressor

turn off immune response→restore homeostasis

27

memory T

enables rapid attack against prev antigens

28

B cells

naive B prod in bone marrow
- AB on surface but not secreted
- AB activated on encounter with Ag → rapid prolif of B → prod identical clones of AB → diff into effector and memory cells

known as humoral immunity → use AB to attack

29

Complement cascade

AB binds to AG
have specific conformation → enz cascade → breakdown
1) mast cell degranulation
2) opsonisation
3) anaphylotoxins
4) recruitment/activation of neutrophils
5) increase vascular permeability

30

Actions of AB

neutralisation
agglutination
precipitation
complement activation
opsonisation

31

IgA

in blood and body fluids
- protects GI, resp tracts

32

IgD

low [] in blood
presented on cell surface R of B cells

33

IgE

low [] in blood
mediate allergic reactions → mast cell degranulation

34

IgG

most abundant (80%)
main AB in 1o response and ESPECIALLY in 2o
crosses placenta (natural passive immunity)

35

IgM

largest and 1st AB secreted after AG encounter
syn by immature B cells
produced in 1o response

- decrease [] with increase [IgG]

36

allergies

first exposure:
- allergen enters → increase IgE prod

subsequent:
- more allergen → combine with mast cell + IgE → degranulation → histamine

37

ageing - infant

decrease AB, macrophage, activity
- breast milk → has AB

38

ageing - elderly

decrease immune function
- decrease T cells and AB response to AG
- thymus shrinks, decrease ability to mediate T cell diff