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Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (55):
1

Divisions of the peripheral NS

somatic sensory
somatic motor
visceral sensory
visceral motor

2

neurons characterisitics

- basic structural and functional unit
- cell body (soma) → contains: nucleus/golgi/ER/mit
- dendrites → relays info to cell body (telodendria - postsynaptic region releasing NT)
- axons → nerve fibres that transmit electrical impulses

3

neuroganglia

supportive structure (physically and metabolically) - 10:1 ratio to neurons
- able to divide

4

astrocytes

CNS
- hold and guide neurons during fetal brain dev
- repair brain injury and neurotransmission
- forms BBB (prevent entry of substances from blood to brain)

5

microglial cells

- immune cell, dormant until activated
- via phagocytosis

6

ependymal cells

in ventricles → secretes CSF
- cilia facilitates movement
- acts as neuronal stem cells

7

oligodendrocyte

myelinated
- has phospholipid bilayer

8

relationship b/w mutiple sclerosis and myelin

eroded myelin → slows impulse conduction → slows motor functions

9

cells in peripheral NS

satellite cells
schwann cells

10

satellite cells

provide nutrients to cells
- surround neurons within ganglia → encompasses whole nerve fibres

11

schwann cells

are the oligodendrocyte in CNS
- myelinated → creates node of ranvier

12

saltatory conduction

myelinated conduction

13

nerve structure

axon → myelin sheath → endoneurium → fasicle → perineurium → epineurium

14

membrane potential

difference b/w charge inside (-70mV) and outside cell
- pump 3 Na out, 2 K in

15

steps of AP

1) stimuli from sensory cell → depol twd threshold
2) theshold reach → Na channel opens → depol
3) peak (+40mV) → K channel opens → repol
4) hyperpol (K leaves cells) → refractory period
5) K channel close → Na/K restore resting potential

16

what is impulse velocity dependent on

diameter of axon and myelination

17

synaptic transmission

- functional connection b/w pre & post synaptic neuron
- AP travels to telodendria to release NT

18

gap junction

electrical synpases
- chemicals move from 1 cell directly to another

19

chemical synapse

NT moves to synaptic → release chemical → triggers next AP
- Ca influx required for NT exocytosis

20

CN1

olfactory

21

CN2

optic

22

CN3

oculomotor - constricts pupils and elevates eyelids

23

CN4

trochlear → controls SUP oblique → controls I-M eye movement

24

CN6

abducent → LAT rectus → controls LAT eye movements

25

CN5

trigeminal
- V1 → opthalic
- V2 → maxillary
- V3 → mandibular

26

CN7

facial - muscles
- taste to ANT 2/3 tongue
- lacrimal & sublingual glands

27

CN8

vestibulocochlear
- hearing and balance

28

CN9

glossopharyngeal
- sensory 1/3 POS taste

29

CN10

vagus, THE autonomic nerve

30

CN11

spinal accessory
- motor to SCM and upper trapezius

31

CN12

hypoglossal
- muscle to tongue
- tongue points to direction of defective branch side

32

structure of CNS

gray (cell bodies and dendrites in cortex)

white (axons underlie the cortex)

33

tracts of CNS

bundle of axons

34

CSF

1o formed by choroid plexus
- absorbed into venous blood through arachnoid villi (500ml/day)

35

function of CSF

- suspend and cushion brain
- monitor changes in internal env
- vehicle for distributing hormones throughout CNS

36

BBB

regulate exchange of substances b/w blood and brain
- continuous layer of endothelial cells joined by tight junctions
- lipid soluble substances able to penetrate
- is incomplete in newborn and premature infants (prone to brain infection

37

brain stem

controls basic functions to maintain life (resp/cardiac/consciousness)
- pons + medulla oblongata + midbrain

38

cerebellum

control fine motor movements (affected in parkinsons)
- maintains equilibrium and posture
- planning and coordination

39

diencephalon

thalamus → relay centre for all sensory pathway to cerebral cortex

hypothalamus

40

cerebrum

4 lobes of the brain

41

frontal lobe

- 1o motor cortex → voluntary motor function
- pre-motor cortex → coordinate of complex movement and eye movement
- prefrontal cortex → personality, insight

42

parietal lobe

somatosensory cortex → processing of sensations and proprioception

43

temporal lobe

limbic association cortex and primary auditory cortex
- language comprehension

44

wenicke's aphasia

compromised ability to understand speech → speak fluently but no sense

45

broca's aphasia

loss of ability to produce language

46

occipital lobe

- 1o visual cortex → vision and coordination
- integration of all sensory input

47

basal nuclei (ganglia)

- contains limbic system → controls emotion
- relay point for nerve fibres

48

limbic system

located above diencephalon
- emotion and memory

49

hippocampus

part of cerebral cortex
- create new memories
- atrophy in alzheimers

50

amygdala

cluster of nuclei
- controls emotions

51

cingulate gyrus

loop of cerebral cortex over corpus callosum
- integrates sensory input and adds emotional content (i.e. rxn to pain)

52

blood supply to brain

originates from aorta
- anastomose to circle of willis
- susceptible to rupture and vascular disease

53

spinal cord

extension of brainstem
- L4/5 cauda epquina

54

ageing

- decrease of neurons in 30s
- decrease ability to maintain and synthesise new nerve cells
- dementia → consequence of degeneration of nerve cells

55

division of white matter

divided within each half of cord
→ into 3 white columns (funiculi)
→ further divided ANT/POS/LAT white columns
→ subdivided into spinal tracts