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Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (35):
1

tablets

drug + substance to bind drug + filler (bulk) + disintegrator (dissolves in body)

2

Enteric-coated

unaffected by acid in stomach → disintegration takes place in SI
- useful for drugs which irritate the stomach

3

capsules

enclosed in gelatine shell → disintegration takes place in stomach

4

sustained-released preparation

released slowly into GIT over extended period
- prepared in layers

5

oral liquid

mixtures/suspension

6

drops

ear = oily
nose = water
eye = water/oily based

7

cream and ointment

creams = aq
ointments = lipid based

8

sublingual/buccal

susceptible to breakdown by liver enz/gastric juices

9

suppository

solid→liquifies at body temp → abs through rectal mucosa & BV

10

enemas

liquid preparations for rectal admin

11

pharmocokinetics

ADME

12

absorption

movement across membrane

13

distribution

vd, bioavailability (how much drug available for use after abs)
(iv gives 100% bioava)

14

metabolism

phase 1 - make drugs bioavailable
phase 2 - active drugs become inactive and excreted
- lipophilic → converts to hydrophilic compound
- BUT could also be used to activate drugs

15

elimination

excretion (urine/faeces)

16

pharmacodynamics

actions of drug
- affinity and efficacy
- increase dose and increase AE

17

drug abs - oral

movement from mouth to blood
- abs in SI → simple lipid diffusion

18

factors affecting drug abs

content GIT
chem property of drug
SA of gut and GIT
molecular size and weight

19

bioavailability

amount of active drug enters plasma

20

steps of drug distribution

- driven by blood circulation
- dilution in blood → move to ECF → uptake into cell

21

factors affecting drug distribution

ability to cross endothelium
protein binding

22

factors affecting drug metabolism

genetics, age, disease, smoking, interactions

23

drug interactions outside body

GTN oxidises in air
Asprin hydrolyses to acetic acid + salicylic acid from moisture

24

drug interactions inside body

grapefruit juice interacts with drugs

25

steady-state level

drug given repeatedly at fixed dose intervals

26

Drug schedule 1 (DS1)

no longer used

27

DS2

pharmacy medicine

28

DS3

pharmacist only

29

DS4

prescription only

30

DS5

household substances

31

DS6

poisons

32

DS7

dangerous poison

33

DS8

controlled drugs

34

DS9

prohibited substances

35

DS11

drugs of dependence