Endocrine system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine system Deck (40):
1

exocrine

ducts

2

endocrine

directly into blood

3

where does the NS integrate with the endocrine system

hypothalamus (within the diencephalon)

4

3 mechanisms of hormone release

humoral - release in response to ECF changes
neural
hormonal

5

what are trophic hormones

causes another gland to release hormones

6

peptide/lipid based hormone

e.g. salbutamol
- usually uses 2nd messengers → binds to R associated with nuclear DNA
- e.g. T4, T3

7

Steroid hormone

lipid based (made cholesterol)
- lipid soluble → binds DNA/modify transcription
- slow acting

8

parathyroid hormone (PTH) and Ca feedback

decrease Ca due to lactation → sensed by PT cells → increase PTH → stimulate osteoclast → increase Ca release from bone storage → increase blood [Ca]

9

PGA

decrease BP and increase coronary BF

10

PGE

regulation of RBC and platelet aggregation
regulation of HCl secretion

11

PGF

causes uterine contractions

12

POS pituitary gland (neurohypophysos)

- ADH/oxytocin
- directly innervated by hypothalamus
- storage and release site

13

ANT pituitary gland (adenohypophysis)

- ACTH→secretes cortisol
- GH, TSH, prolactin, LH, FSH
- activated by secretion of hormones

14

pineal gland

manufactures melatonin (involved in sleep/wake)
- part of NS and endocrine system

15

thyroid gland

-thyroid hormones
- promotes metabolic activity, cell growth and tissue diff
- secretes T3/4
secretes calcitonin by
- parafollicular cells (increase Ca uptake into bones)

16

abnormalities of thyroid glands

hypersecretion (from TSH over-stimulation) → graves disease (increase metabolic activity)

hyposecretion (low secretion of TSH or inflam) → cretinism (decreases metabolic activity)

17

parathyroid gland

control Ca levels
- decrease of [ca] in bones → stimulate PTH release → increases [ca] internal absorption

18

adrenal glands

medulla (neurosecretory): secretes N/NA

cortex (endocrine): secretes aldosterone, cortisol, androgen

19

3 layers of cortex

zona glomerulosa → secretes mineralocorticoids

zona fasciculata → secretes glucocorticoids

zona reticularis → secretes gonadcorticoids

20

cushing's syndrome

increased cortisol

redistribution of body fat, HT, decrease lymphocyte and plasma cells

21

aldosteronism

increase aldosterone

increase water retention, muscle weakness due to k loss

22

tumours in adrenal cortex

increased androgens

23

addision's disease

decreased aldosterone/cortisol

decrease appetite and weight loss
decrease Na and glucose
increase K
Dehydration

24

islet a

glucagon

25

islet b

insulin

26

islet delta

somatostatin
- released in response to food, pH, stretch in gut

27

islet epsilon

ghrelin
- stimulates hypothalamus to boost appetite

28

islet pancreatic polypeptide cells (F or PP cells)

pancreatic polypeptides
-influences digestion and distribution of food molecules

29

Acini (cluster of cells) exocrine portion

secretes serous fluid containing digestive enz

30

testes

produces testosterone → growth and maintenance of male sexual char

31

ovaries

produce estrogen and progesterone

32

placenta

temporary endocrine gland secreting hCG, estrogen, and progesterone

33

thymus

thymosin and thymopoietin
- stimulates development of T cells

34

gut and heart

CCK, gastrin, ghrelin
- for digestion and appetite

ANP prod in heart → decrease Na → decrease BV and BP

35

paracrine hormone

has activity on cells immediately surrounding it (i.e. PG)

36

5 secretory cells in adenohypophysis

somatotrophs → GH
Corticotrophs → ACTH
Thyrotrophs → TSH
Lactotrophs → PRL
gonadotrophs → LH and FSH

37

4 trophic hormones

TSH
ACTH
FSH
LH

38

Aldosterone

released in response to renin
increase Na reabs in kidneys, controlled by RAS

39

glucocorticoids

cortisols → released in response to stress
- cooperates with SNS → increase breakdown of tissues →ensure enoguh nutrients

40

ageing

atrophy of endocrine organs/loss of cells → decrease secretion of hormones

decrease clearance by liver → increase level of hormones