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Flashcards in Repro Deck (37):
1

when do males start producing spermatozoa

~4 weeks after conception
- prod. by sex organs

2

when are sex cells matured

triggered by puberty

3

testes

- located in scroum
- contains BV
- each lobule contains leydig cells and seminiferous tubules

4

function of testes

spermatogenesis

5

secretion of testes

testosterone → leydig cells

inhibin + androgen binding protein → sertoli cells

6

function of testosterone

- production of spermatozoa by seminiferous tubules
- dev/maintain sexual char and drive
- stimulate protein anabolism, RBC prod

7

feedback control of male sex hormones

1) dec [testos] → stim GnRH release from ANT pit
2) GnRH → stim LH and FSH release
- LH → stim leydig → inc [testos] → -ve FB to inhibit GnRH
- FSH → stim sertoli → inc FSh and ABP → inc testos and spermatogen → stim inhibin (from sertoli) → inhibit GnRH and LH

8

epididymis

- within tunica albuginia
- transport, mature sperm
- secrete seminal fluid

9

vas deferens

- propel sperm through duct system
- joins with seminal vesicle → forms ejac duct

10

ejac duct

pass through prostate gland

11

urethra

pass through centra of prostate → receives both ejac duct

12

bulbourethral glands

secretes:
- alkaline fluids → neutralise acid of urethra and vagina
- mucus → lubricate urethra and protect sperm from friction damage

13

seminal vesicle

secretes:
- alkaline fluid → neutralise acid of urethra and vagina
- fructose as source for sperm motility

14

prostate glands

- glandular epithelium, muscular stroma
- secretes: watery/milky fluid → important in sperm ACTIVATION
- prostatic interstitial cells → stimulate contractility

15

what is prostate hypertrophy/plasia dependent on

age, and changes in estrogen/androgen ratio

16

what do the ovaries produce?

ova, estrogen, progesterone

17

estrogen function

- maturation/maintenance of repro system
- ova maturation and release
- dev 2o sex char
- breast dev in anticipation of lactation (with progesterone)

18

walls of the uterus

endometrium
- varies in thickness during cycle

myometrium
- 3 layers of SM in all directions

perimetrium
- incomplete parietal peritoneum (does NOT cover cervix)

19

function of uterus

- permit sperm ascent
- implant embryo in endometrium
- dev placenta
- myometrial contractions

20

uterine (fallopian) tubes divisions

isthmus → ampulla (fertilisation, main site of ectopic preg) → infundibulum → fimbriae

21

fertilisation

- within 24 hours of ovulation
- sperm able to survive up to 7 days in female repro tract
- changes to endometrium to support developing embryo (inc nutrient storage and vascularisation)

22

what controls development of mammary glands

estrogen → promote duct dev

progesterone → stimulate alveolar and secreting cell dev

prolactin → mammary gland dev and milk prod
- abrupt dec in estro and pro AND the loss of placenta → induce ANT pit secretion of prolactin

23

ducts of mammary glands

- secreting alveoli in each lobule
- ducts unite → single lactiferous duct for each lobe → converge to nipple

24

what induces milk ejection

oxytocin

25

2 layers of ovarian tissues

ovarian cortex
- epithelium
- connective tissues - tunica albuginea
- contains immature sex cells (oocytes)

ovarian medulla
- supportive connective tissue cells
- BV/N/lymphatics

26

oogenesis

1) undiff germ cell div mitotically → 6-7mill oogonia

2) 1o oocyte → surrounded by single layer of granulosa cells → becomes 1o follicle
- 500k 1o oocytes remain at birth
- 1o oocytes broken down or matured → ~400 mature and release ova

3) matures into 2o oocyte

27

what is a zygote

fertilised ovum uniting with haploid sperm

28

ovarian cycle - follicular phase

characterised by presence of maturing follicle
1) prod mature egg ready for ovulation
2) follicle matures ~ 14 days → ruptures and release ovum (ovulation)
3) follicle becomes CL (lutenisation)

29

ovarian cycle - luteal phase

characterised by presence of CL
- CL highly vascularised
1) secretes inc progesterone and estrogen than follicular phase
2) degenerates after 14 days UNLESS fertilised and implanted

30

hormones regulating follicular phase

↑FSH → ↑ estrogen (from follicle) → -veFB → ↓FSH → ↑LH → ovulation → formation of CL

31

hormones regulating luteal phase

CL secretes (also oestrogen) progesterone → ↓LH and FSH

32

hormones when there is fertilisation

Then there is ↑HCG from CL (not degen) → placenta then takes over the role of CL

33

hormones when no fertilisation

↓LH → CL degenerates → ↑FSH again → initiates new cycle

34

why does the endometrial lining shed

sheds at beginning of menstrual cycle
- due to low progesterone and estrogen

35

hormones secreted by the placenta

- separates maternal and fetal blood

secretes:
- hCG → maintains pregnancy
- estrogen → growth of myometrium
- progesterone → suppress uterine contractions
- relaxin → relax ligaments and SM to prep birth (may develop joint pain)

36

puberty

inc GnRH secretion
- stim release of FSH and LH

37

ammenorrhea

absence of menstrual cycle

- 1o → never happens but have developed sexual characteristics

- 2o → menopause or loss of ability to menstrate (e.g. from taking pill)