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Flashcards in CVS Deck (15):
1

fibrous pericardium

tough, inelastic around heart

2

serous pericardium

parietal/visceral

3

pericardial space

has serous fluid for lubrication

4

heart wall

endocardium → endothelial tissue covering projections

myocardium → contractile muscle layer

epicardium → visceral layer of serous pericardium

5

BS of heart tissues

opening of coronary A → cusps of aortic semilunar valve

coronary sinus (drains into RA) → drains the coronary V

6

cardiac conduction system

ensures correct sequence, rhythm, coordination

7

SA node

60-100bpm
- found in RA
- pacemaker
- initiates impulse without stimulation from NS
- spreads to mid/pos internodal tract ( found on floor of RA → delays impulse from A to V )

8

AV node

40-60bpm
- can take over as pacemaker if SA compromised

9

route of electrical impulse

SA → AV → bundle of His → R/L bundle branch → respective purkinje fibres (20-40bpm) → ventricular contraction

10

ECG

P - atria depol
PR interval - AV node delay
QRS - v depol
T - v repol

11

ventricular tachycardia

rapid ventricle contractions

12

ventricular fibrillations

irregular, asynchronous contractions
- no pulse (no time to fill → no blood pumped)

13

asystole

no electrical activity (defib works to reset nodes)

14

ageing

- by 75 → 90% pacemaker + ~50% bundle of his are lost → leads to arrhythmias

- decrease baroreceptor response → orthostatic hypo

- decrease A wall elasticity/thickening + stiff valve → murmurs/regurgitations/increase BP

- decrease response to adrenergic stimulation

15

what is lipofuscin

residue from lipolysis
- an increase lipofuscin → sign of ageing
- may also leads to atherosclerosis